District At a Glance
Jind (Hindi: जींद) is a town in Jind District, Haryana state, India. Jind is one of the 21 districts of Haryana state in northern India.
Jind town is the district headquarters. It is one of the oldest districts of Haryana. It is one of the first Sikh Kingdoms. It lies in central Haryana and is the fourth district of the Jat belt (i.e Sonipat, Rohtak, Hissar, Jind).The city is clean. Rani Talab is the major tourist attraction and Pandu-Pidara and Ramrai are the main devotional places attracting devotees for Amaavas bath.
Jind town has a Arjun stadium, milk plant, cattle feed plant, Bulbul restaurant and a large grain market. There are facilities for stay at PWD rest house, canal rest house and market committee rest house. The town is well provided with schools, colleges, hospitals and other basic amenities. Jind is noted for its numerous temples sacred to the worship of Shiva. Tradition assigns the settlement of the town to the Mahabharat period.
ORIGIN OF THE NAME
The district derives its name from its headquarters town Jind that is said to be a corruption of Jaintapuri. It is also said that this town had been founded at the time of Mahabharta. According to an old saying the Pandavas built a temple in honour of Jainti Devi (the goddess of victory), offered prayers for success, and then launched the battle with the Kauravas. The town grew up around the temple and was named Jaintapuri (Abode of Jainti Devi) which later on came to be known as Jind.
According to the legend, the Pandavas built here a temple in honor of Jainti Devi (the goddess of victory) and offered prayers for success in their battle against the Kouravas. The town grew up around the temple and was named Jaintapuri, (abode of Jainti Devi) which in course of time corrupted to Jind. Raja Gajpat Singh in 1755 seized a large tract of country including the present districts of Jind from the Afghan and made Jind the capital of the state in 1776. He made a fort here in 1775. Later, Sangrur was chosen as capital of Jind State by Raja Sangat Singh (1822 to 1834 AD)
The district comprises four sub-divisions: Jind, Narwana, Safidon and Uchana. Jind sub-division is further divided into two tehsils: Jind and Julana. Narwana, Uchana and Safidon sub-divisions comprise only one tehsil each, Narwana, Uchana and Safidon respectively.
There are five Vidhan Sabha constituencies in this district: Julana, Safidon, Jind, Uchana Kalan and Narwana.
The area in which the Jind district lies formed an integral part of Kurukshetra in the traditional geographical account. It derived its name after Jainti, an ancient tirtha mentioned in the Mahabharata and the Padma Purana, founded in honor of Jainti, the goddess of victory. According to a local tradition, the goddess was invoked by the Pandavas for victory in the battle against the Kauravas.
The antiquity of the district is established on the basis of the discovery of the Pre-Harappan, the Late-Harappan and the Painted Grey Ware pottery at various places from the district and the mention of its tirthas in the Puranas corroborates it.
The district was first occupied by a pre-Harappan Chalcolitic agricultural community whose pottery has been recovered from a number of places such as Anta, Morkhi, Beri Khera (tahsil Safidon); Balu, Hatho, Rani Ran (Bata), Pahlwan, Dhakal (tahsil Narwana); Birbaraban, Barsana, Pauli, Karsola (tahsil Jind), etc. It is not yet possible to state from where these people had moved here or to throw much light on their socio-economic life. However, on the basis of the evidence of the nearby pre-Harappan sites like Mitathal (Bhiwani district), Siswal, Banwali and Rakhigarhi (Hisar district), it may be stated that these people possibly lived in mud brick and thatched roof houses, used wheel-made pottery, terracotta and copper-made objects.
Ritauli, Birbaraban, Pauli (Jind tahsil), and Balu (Narwana tahsil) have yielded pottery of the mature Harappan culture.
Further the existence of the classical Harappan site of Rakhigarhi(Hisar District) about 15 kms from Jind suggests the existence of such sites also in Jind district, but in the absence of excavations, it is not possible to go beyond this surmise. After the Harappans, the region was inhabited by the late-Harappans (1700 B.C.-1300 B.C.) whose pottery has been recovered from many places in the district. No Late-Harappans site has so far been excavated in the district , but on the basis of the evidence from the adjoining areas like Mitahal ( Bhiwani district ) , Bhagwanpur and Mirzpur (near Raja Karna Ka Kila, Kurukshetra District), etc. it appears that the pepole representing this culture lived in mud bricks houses , used oval ovens and thick sturdy red-ware, well levigated and burnt.The discovery of painted and incised terracotta figurines, possibly indicates their belief in animal worship.
About 1000 B.C., with the advent of the painted Grey Ware people, generally associated with the Aryans, a new era dawned upon this district. The people representing this new culture settled on the banks of the holy rivers Sarasvati and Drishadvati, and the region came to be known as the holy land of Kurukshetra. Thus the district of Jind formed the southern boundary of Kurukshetra is indicated by a later cultural development in the form of Yakshas or Dvarapalas at Ram Rai (Jind tahsil) and Barta (Narwana tahsil). The sacred Drishadavati ,in fact, passed through some places like Hat, Assan, Brah, Jind, Dhundwa and Ramrai. The mention of various tirthas of the district in the Mahabharta and the Puranas points to the continuance of activities of the Aryans, The region came under the sway of the Vedic Bharatas, Purus and the Kurus and was included in the kingdom of the Pandavas under whom it touched the hight of glory. King Parikshit, grandson of the Pandavas had his second capital at Asandivat (Asandh in Karnal district), very close to the Jind district. Parikshit, however, lost his life in the struggle against the Nagas of Taxila. This defeat, later avenged by his son Janamejaya, is symbolised in the epic tradition of the snake sacrifice which possibly took place at Sarpi Darvi of Safidon.
It may safely be inferred that this area was also included in the kingdom of the Kurus, which was one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas in the 6th century B.C. mentioned in the Buddhist literature. It was a part of the Nanda Empire, and its people are included by Panini among the warrior communities (Ayudha- Jivins) of Punjab.
Later on, these people may have possibly assisted Chandragupta in his war of liberation against the foreign Greeks. Archaeological remains of pre-Mauryan and Mauryan times have been recovered from a number of places in the district. Furthermore, the discovery of an Ashokan Edict at Topra, pillars at Hisar and Fatehabad and stupas at Chaneti and Thanesar in the adjoining districts suggests inclusion of the Jind area in the Mauryan empire.
After the fall of the Mauryas, the region witnessed the rise of several important republican people. Among these the most important were of course the Yaudheyas who spread over an extensive area from Ludhiana to Bharatpur in Rajasthan. The Yaudheyas later submitted to the superior power of the Kushanas whose coins have been found throughout Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Mathura and other regions. An Athsho (an Iranian fire deity) type coin of Kanishka was recovered from village Anta (Safidon tahsil). The Sonipat hoard of Kushana coins, their coin moulds from Narangabad (Bhiwani district) and crude imitation of coin types of Vasudeva I from other places including those form this district, and also the discovery of typical pottery of Kushana times from the district suggest that the Kushanas ruled here. With the decline of the Kushanas power after Havishaka (138 A.D.) the Yaudheyas again asserted their independence some time during the third century A.D. Their coins belonging to this period have been found throughout Haryana, e.g., Sonipat, Rohtak, Raia, Anawali, Karontha, Narangabad, Hansi, Sirsa, Hisar, Assan, Jaijaiwanti and Anta. In the fourth century A.D., the region alongwith the Yaudheyas submitted to Samudra-Gupta and after the fall of the imperial Guptas, to the Hunas. In the seventh century A.D. it formed part of the region called Srikantha and was under the Pushpabhutis of Thanesar. Under the Pushpahautis, the region attained the pinnacle of glory but after the death of Harsha what became of the region is not precisely known. Towards the end of seventh century A.D., the army of Yasovarman, the king of Kanauj passed through this region. In the ninth and tenth centuries, the district formed part of the Partihara empire whose inscriptions have been found at Sirsa, Pehowa and Delhi. Later on, the Tomaras, the feudatories of the Pratiharas came to power here.
As indicated in the Palam Boali and Delhi Museum inscriptions, the Tomaras ruled the Haryana country from their capital Dhillika, modern Delhi till the middle of Twelth century when they were over thrown by the Chahamana Vigraharaja IV (Visaladeva). Hansi, Sirsa, Pinjore, and Bhatinda were the chief centres of political activity during this period. The Chahamana supremacy in this region, however, could not last long. The defeat of the forces of Prithyiraja by Shihab-ud-din (Muizz-ud-din) Gauri in the decisive battle of Tarai (1192 A.D.) and the fight of Prithviraj towards Sirsa, his capture and subsequent death , gave a definite turn to the political fortune of the region. With almost the whole of the north west of India, It passed on to the Muslim rule for centuries to come.
After the demise of Shihab-ud-din Gauri, Qutb-ud-din Aibak, his favorite general established Turkish rule in northern India in 1206. The Haryana territory, including the present Jind district, formed a part of the Sultanate of Aibak who placed the district under the Iqta of Hansi. Officers mostly belonging to the army, were put incharge of the administration to preserve law and order and collect taxes, in the towns of Jind, Dhatrat and Safidon. The villages were left to themselves; none interfered in their affairs if they paid their revenue in time.
This position continued throughout the reign of Aibak and his successors, up to A.D. 1283. But the Khaljis under Ala-ud-din, the greatest of the kings of this dynasty made definite changes. He took the region in his tight grip by placing it under direct control of the central government. The change was for the worse. Ala-ud-din squeezed the people of their incomes in such a ruthless manner that they literally became paupers. Unfortunately the two Tughluqs Ghiyas-ud-din (A.D.1320-1325) and Muhammad Tughluq (A.D. 1325-1351) who came after him were in no way better than him.
However the third Tughluq Firoz (A.D. 1351-1388) behaved differently; he undid what his predecessors had done. He reduced the land revenue, exempted the peasants of several taxes and provided them with many facilities. In 1355-56 he brought water to the thirsty soil of the district. He took out a canal from the Yamuna which entered the district at Anta, and thence flowing through the present Jind tahsil from east to west in the line of the old Chutang nadi past the town of Safidon and Jind, reached up to Hisar.
Firoz also made some administrative changes here. He created a separate Iqta of Safidon; and placed the entire area of the present district under its Mukta, Yalkhan, a trusted noble. He also changed the name of Safidon to Tughluqpur.
After Firoz’s death (A.D. 1388), the district felt the full force of those deadly discords which rent the Delhi Sultanate. Along with the other territories in Haryana, Jind slipped out of the hands of the Tughluqs. The people became quite assertive and accepted only the local authority.
There is one important event of this time which needs to be mentioned. Timur launched a fierce attack on northern India in A.D. 1398. He entered Haryana from Punjab side and overran the districts of Sirsa and Hisar. Fortunately, the district of Jind did not suffer much at his hands; during his march from Tohana to Kaithal and then from Kaithal to Panipat he touched only the outskirts of the district except for a short distance of a few kilometers from Moana (a small village near the Karnal-Jind border) to Safidon and a little beyond. The inhabitants of these places ran away before his advent and the invader could not lay his hands on any thing except for burning the fort of Safidon.
After Timur’s return from India, the same old situation again arose. There was no king and no government for the people of Jind for quite some time. The Sayyids could not effect any improvement in the situation, but their successors, the Lodis brought the distrcit under their control in A.D. 1451 and retained it until 1526 when Babur, the founder of the Mughal empire in India snatched it from the weak hands of the last of their rulers, Ibrahim Lodi.
Babur gave the entire Hisar division including the Jind district to Humayun as a reward for his meritorious services during the last campaign. Humayun retained it until 1530 when Babur died and he himself became the king of Hindustan. Subsequently, the Faujdar of Hisar controlled the district until 1540, when Humayun was driven out of his empire by Sher Shah Suri.
Sher Shah was an administrative genius. He divided his whole kingdom into sixty six sarkars. Jind came, as in the earlier time, under the Sarkar of Hisar. Its administration was carried out by two officials, namely, Shiqdar-i-Shiqdaran and Munsif-Munsifan. Unfortunately there is no direct evidence to give the exact number of parganas into which the district was then divided, but it is surmised that they were three. The parganas were controlled by Shiqdars, Munsifs and junior officials, like Qanungos, Khazanchis, etc. The smallest unit of administration was the village which was administered by the Muqaddams, and Panchayats; Patwaris and Chaukidars helped in discharging their work. Sher Shah ruled for only five years (1540-45). There was peace, prosperity and tranquility every where during his short rule, but not after him. The Mughal Emperor Humayun took advantage of the new situation and wrested his lost kingdom from them. Jind district again came under the Mughal sway (1555).
Humayun’s death within a year threw confusion all around. But his son, Akbar, not yet 14, effected improvement in the situation after his victory over Hemu in the second battle of Panipat, 1556.
The Ain-i-Akbari does not give the number of villages in the different mahals or in the aggregate. It, however, makes reference to a brick fort at Dhatrat. Jind had, interestingly, no fort at that time. The administrative machinery that controlled the villages, mahals and sarkars was of the same type as was found in this region in the time of Sher Shah.
The above administrative set-up remained intact during the reign of Akbar’s successors-Jahangir (1605-1627), Shah Jahan (1627-1658), and Aurangzeb (1658-1707).
The situation however, underwent drastic changes after the death of Aurangzeb in 1707 which ushered in an era of chaos and confusion. The imperial authority ceased to carry any awe with it and people stopped caring for it. In Jind, the sturdy Jats, Rajputs, Ranghars and Ahirs became disorderly and would not pay land revenue to their old masters or accept their authority. Their villages surrounded by mud walls were like fortresses which could only be reduced by artillery and a large force which the local haqims could not always muster.
One Gajpat Singh, a great grandson of Phul, the founder of the Phulkian Misl, one of the 12 confederacies of the Sikhs in the 18th century took advantage of the above situation. He took part in the attack of the Sikhs on the province of Sirhind in 1763 in which Zain Khan, The Afghan governor of the province was killed. Gajpat Singh occupied a large tract of the country including Jind and Safidon as his share of the spoil. He made Jind his headquarters and built a large brick fort there.
In 1772, Emperor Shah Alam conferred upon Gajpat Singh the title of Raja. From this time onward, the Sikh chief ruled as an independent prince and coined money in his own name The Delhi authority failed several times to bring him under its control. In 1774 a serious quarrel arose between Gajpat Singh and Himir Singh , the then ruler of Nabha . Gajpat singh used force and took possession of Amloh Bhadson and Sangrur ,by the intervention of the ruler of Patiala and other friends . The first two places were restored to Nabha but Sangrur then a village was retained.
Raja Gajpat Singh’s Daughter Bibi Kaur married Sardar Mahan Singh Sukrachakla and became the mother of famous Maharaja Ranjit Singh. This must have enhanced Gajpat Singh’s prestige. Moreover his strategic position in the North-Western corner of the Rohtak region made it easy for him to have his hold over some parts of Haryana –Gohana, Hisar etc. which he and his successors held until the beginning of the last century.
Raja Gajpat Singh died in 1786 and was succeeded by his son Bhag Singh at a very tough time. But he overcame this serious menace with the help of his brother chief of the Cis-Satluj tract and the Marathas.
Bhag Singh was a shrewd man. He was the first of all the Cis-Satluj princes to seek an alliance with the British . In 1803 he assisted Lord Lake in his way against the Marathas and received confirmation of the Gohana estste. He also prevented his nephew Maharaja Ranjit Singh from espousing the cause of Jaswant Rao Holkar,.The British recognised in him a great friend and ally and showed him many marks of favour and regard.
Raja Bhag Singh suffered a severe paralytic attack in March 1813. Unfit to run the administration of his state, the ailing chief wished to appoint Prince Pratap Singh the ablest and wisest of all his sons as his regent to do his work . But the British government to whom the anti-British bearing of the prince was known stood in his way and got Rani Sobrahi appointed in place of the price in 1814. This was unbearable for Paratap Singh and he raised the standard of revolt on June 23, 1814. He being a popular figure the state forces also revolted and joined him forth with. With their help the prince lost no time in occupying the Jind fort and established his government after putting the Rani the puppet of the British government to the sword.
This alarmed the British authorities very much and the British resident at Delhi sent his force against Pratap Singh , the prince thinking that he would not be able to give a fight to this force from the Jind fort, retired to a relatively stronger position at Balanwati , a fort in the wild country about Bhatinda. The British attacked him with full force and after a fierce fighting for some time Pratap Singh had to leave this fort and take his position in the country on the other bank of the Satluj after crossing it at Makhowal . Here he was joined by Phaula Singh Akali.
Pratap singh remained with Phaula Singh at Nanpur Mokhowal for two months and persuaded the latter to assist him actively at Balanwali. When the British came to know that Phula Singh had crossed the Satluj, they directed Nabha and Malerkotla rulers to attack him. Balanwali was then invaded by Patiala troops and was almost prepared to surrender when its defenders heard the approach of Phula Singh. They at once broke the negotiations while Pratap Singh went in advance and with a few men threw himself into the fort. The Patiala troops marched to intercept Phula Singh who was unable to relieve the fort and retired towards the Satluj. The British directed Nabha and Kaithal chiefs to help Patiala troops. Balanwali Surrendered and Pratap Singh was taken a prisoner and was placed under merely a nominal restraint. Pratap Singh later fled to Lohore. Maharaja Ranjit Singh refused to give a shelter to Pratap Singh and gave him up to the British who placed him in confinement at Delhi where he died in 1816.
The administration of Jind was entrusted to prince Fateh Singh. Though Raja Bhag Singh did not like the arrangement, yet he did not oppose it. In fact, he had neither the will nor the means to do it. Bhag Singh died in 1819, and Fateh Singh succeeded him. He ruled for a short time only and died three years later (1822). Now Sangat Singh, (11 years old) succeeded him. He hated the authority of the British which the latter noted with grave concern. But, before they could think of dealing with him he died a sudden death on November 2, 1834. Annoyed as the British Government was with the deceased Raja, they forfeited a number of his estates in Ludhiana, Mudki, etc. (about 150 villages) and in the trans-Satluj region (Halwara, Talwandi, etc.). The latter estates were given to Ranjit singh.
Since the deceased Raja left no male heir behind him, Sarup Singh, his cousin succeeded him. He was very friendly and loyal to British, but not to his people, especially of Balanwali. They did not relish the change and organised themselves to oppose him. Gulab Singh Gill, formerly a Risaldar in Jind army and Dal Singh, brother-in-law of Prince Pratap Singh, were their leaders. The rebels got a good deal of inspiration from Mai Sul Rai, the widow of Prince Pratap Singh. A British force was dispatched against the rebels in early 1835. By March the ranks of the rebels had swelled a good deal. The people of the neighboring villages like Bhai Chakian, etc. and the Akalis of Gurusar, a place of pilgrimage had joined hands with them. The villagers fought well, but being inferior to their enemy in military knowledge, strategy and tactics, arms and ammunitions, they lost the day. Their casualties in the action were quite heavy, Gulab Singh being one of them. Dal Singh and Mai Rai were apprehended and put behind the bars, along with their supporters. And thus ended a popular revolt after much bloodshed and cruelty on the part of the British government.
Raja Sarup Singh gave great help to the British government for his selfish motives. In 1857, immediately on learning of the outbreak, he conducted his troops to Karnal by forced marches and undertook the defence of the city and cantonment. He then sent a detachment of his troops to north of Delhi, thus enabling the Meerut force to cross the Yamuna and join Sir H. Barnard’s column. The Jind forces marched in advance of the British army recovering Samalkha and Rai, securing the road and collecting supplies for the army. They were complimented on the field by the Commander-in-Chief, who sent one of the captured guns to the Raja as a present. In the assault of Delhi also the Jind troops took a prominent part. Resultingly Dadri and Kularan were made over to the Raja, privileges of full sovereignty were granted to him and his successors in perpetuity and honorary titles were conferred on him
Raja Sarup Singh died in 1864. He was succeeded by his son Raghbir Singh. Immediately after his installation, Raghbir Singh was faced with a serious revolt of the peasantry in the newly acquired territory of Dadri. In May 1874, the poor exploited peasants of about 50 villages in this tract led by their local Chaudharis and Hakim and Kasim Ali rose en- masse captured police station arrested Thanedar and proclaimed the end of the Raja’s rule. This was a big challenge to Raja who immediately marched in person at the head of a big army. His first attack was on Charkhi (14 May), where 1500-2000 persons of the rebellious villages had collected and entrenched themselves. They resisted the Raja to the last but ultimately they were defeated and their village was burnt. Next, Mankawas was attacked, captured and destroyed. However the two defeats did not dishearten the brave villagers who gave a tough battle to the Raja at Jhauju (16 May). But here also they shared the same fate and defeat quelled the rebellion once for all. The Raja punished the leaders but permitted the Zamindar to return and rebuild their ruined villages.
The Raja also took side of the British Government on the occasion of the Kuka outbreak in 1872. Again when the second Afghan war broke out six years later he gave help to the British with man, money, and material. The British government conferred the title of Raja-i-Rajgan on Raghbir Singh.
Raghbir Singh died in 1887. His only son Balbir singh had died during his own lifetime and therefore his grandson, Ranbir Singh, Then only 8 years of age, succeeded him. During the period of his minority, a council of regency administered the state, during this regime the state troops took part in the Tirah campaign of 1897. He was interested in full ruling powers in November 1899.
During the first world war, Jind maintained its loyal tradition by placing all the resources of his state at the disposal of the government .The Jind Imperial Service Regiment was on active service for about three and half years in East Africa; States war gift amounted to over 24 lacs ; while the total loan raised in the state amounted to eleven and half lacs.The British Government thanked the Maharaja very heartily after the war.
PRAJA MANDAL MOVEMENT
The Raja as indicated above was very loyal to the British but indifferent toward the prosperity of his subjects. Instead of looking after their welfare, he effected their economic exploitation. The poor and ignorant masses groaned under the exploitation by the Raja.
In the first quarter of the present century when winds of political awakening and enlightenment reached even the remotest corners of the country , the pepole of Jind were also affected . They became conscious of their pitiable conditions and began to ponder over has to how to get over these difficulties . The formation of all India state pepole’s conference in 1927 at the Punjab state Riyasti Paraja Mandal the following years showed them the way . They too , established the Jind state Parja Mandal however in the condition which were then in vogue , No open memberhip drive of the Mandal was possible . Members were recruited secretly . Parja Mandal would appear to have been established at Narwana . and other places in sport of National movement The Sikh peasants joined the Paraja Mandal Movement and they launched the stir against the Raja . The agitators as they were called then led their main attack on the enhanced revenue rates., corruption and high- handedness of the Chief Minister of the State Raja Ranbir Singh took a stiff attitude and the stir does not seem to have achieved any big success but this did not dishearten the people. In the late Thirties the Parja Mandal Movement sepread to almost all parts of the state, the branches of Parja Mandal were opened at Sangrur, Dadri, Jind and at several big villages in the region.
The Praja Mandalist waged a long stubborn struggle for the reduction of taxes, abolition of begar and popular representation in the Government. Their efforts bore fruits, through belated and the Raja accepted their demand for an elected assembly and formed a representative government on 18th January, 1947 with five ministers; two Praja Mandalists, two Akalies, and one Muslim. The Raja had power to veto any decision of his cabinet.
This arrangement did not satisfy the people especially in the Dadri region, where they rose in revolt in February, 1947. They courted arrests in large number and formed a parallel government of their own. This compelled the Jind authorities to invite the president of the All India State Peoples Conference for negotiations. On his advice the people withdrew the movement. The state authorities promised to look into their grievances and released all the Praja Mandalists who had been arrested.
When India got independence (August, 1947), a non-official poll was taken by the Jind State Praja Mandal in Jind and Dadri to ascertain the views of the people about their future whether they wanted to merge with Punjab or stood for a separate state. The majority of people voted for the former proposal . But the government merged the state with the newly- created state of Patiala and East Punjab State Union(PEPSU) on July 15, 1948
With the formation of the Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU) in 1948, the state was grouped into eight districts namely, Patiala, Barnala, Bhatinda, Kapurthala, Fatehgarh Sahib, Sangrur, Mahendragarh and Kohistan(Kandaghat). In 1953, the number of districts was reduced to five, by merging Barnala with Sangrur and Kandaghat and Fatehgarh Sahib with Patiala. Thus the Sangrur district comprised five tahsils, namely, Barnala, Malerkotla, Sangrur, Narwana and Jind.
During the reorganization of the Punjab in 1966, the Sangrur district was bifurcated and Jind and Narwana tahsils were allocated to Haryana and were constituted into Jind district. The Jind tahsil was bifurcated into two tahsils of Jind and Safidon in 1967. In January 1973, 54 villages of Kaithal tahsil were transferred to Jind district, 43 going to Jind tahsil, 5 to Safidon tahsil and 6 to Narwana tahsil. One village namely, Barsola was transferred to Jind tahsil from Hansi tahsil of Hisar district in 1974.
The climate of this district is on the whole dry, hot in summer and cold in winter. The year may be divided into four seasons. The cold season from november to march is followed by hot season which lasts till the onset of the south-west monsoon. The monsoon withdraws by 15 September and is followed by the Post-monsoon or the transition period.
Rainfall :- The average rainfall over the district as a whole is 55 cm. It generally increases from south or south-west to east or north-east. Over 70 per cent of the annual rainfall is received during the monsoon months of July to September. July and August are the rainiest months, together accounting for over 50 per cent of the annual rainfall. Per-monsoon rainfall in June constitutes just about 10 per cent of the annual normal. Some precipitation, constituting about 10 per cent of the annual rainfall, is also received during the winter months of December to Februrary in association with western disturbances which pass across the district or its neighborhood from west to east, affecting the weather over the district in this season. The variation in annual rainfall from year to year is large. In 48 years during 1901 to 1948, Jind which is the only station in the district with a long period of rainfall record, had 220 per cent of the annual normal rain in 1933 and only 29 per cent in 1939. Considering the rainfall in individual years during 48 years, it was less than 80 per cent of the annual normal in 15 years, including one spell of consecutive 5 years and one of consecutive two years. The average number of rainy days for the district is only 25 out of which 18 days are confined to the months of June to September and 4 days to the winter months of December to March. This shows that rainfall occurs mainly as showers.
The heaviest rainfall recorded in the district in 24 hours was 225.5 mm at Jind on 11th July 1953.
Temperature :- There is no meteorological observatory in the district, On the basis of records of the observatories in the neighboring districts where similar climatic conditions prevail, it is stated that from the beginning of March, temperature increases rapidly till June which is generally the warmest month. The mean daily maximum temperature during June is around 41C and the mean daily minimum around 27C. The heat in summer in intense. On individual days, the day temperature may occasionally exceed 47 or 48 C. Scorching dust laden winds which blow during the hot season render the weather very tiring. Afternoon thunder showers which occur on some days bring some relief although only temporarily. With the onset of the monsoon by the end of June or beginning of July there is a drop in the day temperature but the nights are nearly as warm as in June. Due to the increase humidity in the air, the weather is oppressive between the rains. After the withdrawal of the monsoon by about the middle of September there is a decrease in temperature, the fall in the night temperature being more rapid. After October both day and night temperature decreases rapidly. January is usually the coldest month with the mean daily maximum temperature at about 21 C , and the mean daily minimum at about 6 C in the cold season. Particularly in January and February, cold winds in the wake of passing western disturbances affect the district and the minimum temperature occasionally drops down to below the freezing point of water.
Humidity :- During the south-west monsoon-season July to September, the relative humidity is high, being over 75-80 per cent in the morning and 55 to 65 per cent in the afternoon. High humidity of more than 70 per cent also prevails during the winter months of December to February. It is comparatively drier during the rest of the year. April and May constitute the driest part of the year when in the afternoon the relative humidity is 20 per cent or even less.
Cloudiness :- The sky is moderately clouded mainly in July and August. Cloudiness decreases rapidly by october. In the period of November to May, the sky is mostly clear or lightly clouded, except during passage of western disturbances in the cold season when the sky becomes cloudy for a brief spell of a day or two. From June onwards cloudiness increases.
Winds :- Winds are generally light, with some stregthing in force during late summer and early monsoon season. In the south-west monsoon season, winds from the south-west and west are more common, with the easterlies and south-easterlies blowing on some days. In the post-monsoon and winter season, south-easterlies and westerlies are common in the mornings while northerlies and north-westerlies are predominant in the afternoons. During summer, winds are from west or south-west in the morning. In the afternoons, winds blow from directions between west and north.
Special Weather Phenomena :- Thunderstorms, in association with pre-monsoon and monsoon rains occur mostly during June to September. During the winter also, a few thunderstorms occur in association with the western disturbances. A few thunderstorms may be accompanied by hail. Occasional duststorms occur during the hot season. Fog is rare and occurs only in winter.
The district of Jind stretching in the northwest to southeast direction occupies the north-central part of the Haryana. Physiographically, it constitutes a part of the Punjab-Haryana plain, which is largely flat and featureless and is formed of Pleistocene and sub-recent alluvial deposits of the Indo-Gangetic system. Wind action in the past and man’s role in recent times have played a prominent part in shaping the relief of the district which is located in a transitional zone between the sub-humid districts Kaithal, Panipat and Karnal in the east and the semi-arid district Hisar in the west.
Broadly speaking, the district is a flat, monotonous upland plain. It is evident from the fact that the general elevation of the district ranges between 218 meters and 239 meters above sea level. As the spot-heights are examined more closely, one discovers that there is no general and consistent trend in the slope of the area. However, the northern part of Narwana tahsil presents a saucer like shape having the highest elevation of 239 meters in the extreme north near Sanghan village. As one moves south-westward, the ground level gradually declines reaching its lowest of 226 meters near the town of Narwana from where it again starts rising until it reaches 232 meters near Durjanpur village almost on the district’s border. The southern half of the district, consisting of Jind and Safion tahsils on the other hand offers a fradual east-to-west slope. The highest point in this part of the district is reached near village Bahri (232 meters) and the lowest elevation of 218 meters is met near Rajpura village in the west along the district border with Hisar district.
There are minor undulations in the general physiographic formation of the district. These undulations characterise the area having been subject to wind action in the past and owe their existence to the presence of sand dunes, sand ridges and depressions at places. The sand dunes/ridges are now stable generally having a local relief of 2 to 6 meters. The largest and the highest sand dune of the district lying north-west of Kakrod village (Narwana tahsil) on Hisar-Jind border is 2 Kilometers long and quarter a kilometer wide and has a local relief of 6 meters. This is the area where large sand ridges occur the most, particularly to the south-west of Kakrod village. Other areas where sanddunnes occur frequently are (i) the area along Hisar border between Sulhera village in the north and Danauda Khurd village in the south where the local relief ranges between 2 to 5 meters; (ii) the area in the vicinity of village Ashrafgarh, especially south-west and south of the village where the sand dunes rise from 2 to 4 meters above the local relief (iii) the small area lying to south of Julani village (west of Jind town); and (iv) the area in the proximity of Jai Jai Wanti village in Jind tahsil which has wide undulations but where the local relief variations do not exceed 4 meters.
These sand ridges apart, one also comes across thee depressions at places. The largest of such depressions lies south of Bhambewa village in Safidon tahsil just on the district border with sonipat district. This depression extends over 1.5 kilometers of length and about one kilometers of width and is about 5 metres deep. Another depression occurs north of village Bithmara (Narwana tahsil ) which extends over 1 kilometer in length and about half a kilometer in width. The third lies to south of Safidon near village Bahaderpur and it extends over one kilometer in length and kilometer in width.
In brief, the district does not offer much physiographic diversity. It is flat, featureless, alluvial upland plain dotted only sporadically with sand dunes and depressions, yielding a local relief of not more than 6 metres either way.
Drainage :- With regard to the drainage pattern, the complete absence of major or minor rivers/streams defies any detailed discussion on drainage. However, it is necessary to mention the entry and termination of Chautang river into the district near the village Mundh and its termination near village Bosini into Karnal district after covering about a distance of ten kilometers in Jind district.
The district, by and large, is underlain by the quaternary alluvium, comprising chiefly clays, sand of various grades, kankar and occasionally gravel and pebbles. It has been observed that the clayey material generally constitutes between 31 and 81 percent of the caustic sediments down to a maximum drilled depth of about 151 meters from the ground level. Granular material comprising chiefly fine to coarse grained sand with occasional pebbles appear to be ventricular in shape with their longer axes generally running in the north-south direction.
Saltpeter :- Saltpeter, commonly known as ‘Shora’ occurs as soil encrustations in several localities. The encrustations are maximum during dry months of summer when the evaporation of water due to capillary action of the soil is maximum. Saltpeter is economically exploited at Kalayat, Uchana, Narwana, Safidon and Jind.
Gypsum :- Gypsum has been reported from Julana area . It occurs as disseminations in the clay bands inter bedded with sandy layers. The worn burrows in the clay bands are also seen.
A buried river channel running in east-north-east to west-south-west direction has been located in the eastern part of the area. In Safidon-Jind tract successful tubewells have been constructed within a depth of 80 meters. Within this depth a thickness of 25 meters to 35 meters of granular materials comprising coarse sand, gravel and pebble is generally encountered.
The groundwater occurs in a thick zone of saturation in the alluvium both under confined and unconfined conditions. The shallow zone with free water surface, which is tapped chiefly by open wells and shallow tube-wells, is unconfined. The deeper aquifers which are underlain by extensive confining clays occur under confined conditions.
The depth of water table generally ranges from 0.83 to 39.80 meters. Water table is shallowest in the areas along canals, particularly the Hansi branch and in the area immediately to north of the Ghaggar. Water table is deep generally resting below 30 meters in the central parts of the district. The water table records a general decline ranging from 0.01 to 2.48 meters during the extreme summer months. In the area where water level is closer to the land surface, water logging and soil Stalinizations exist.
The deeper aquifers are confined. The cumulative pressure head of the confined water has been generally recorded in the existing deep tubewells to vary between 2.5 meters and 11.5 meters from the ground level. The yield of the tubewells tapping such aquifers to the maximum depth of 998 meters ranges from 0.042 to 0.051 cubic meters per second.
In general the groundwater is alkaline in reaction, with little or no carbonate. The specific conductance of water varies widely ranging from 470 to 14,280 micro ohm/cm . Except for local patches, the groundwater is excessively hard. The groundwater in the northern parts of the district is Magnesium-Calcium, Bicarbonate, Chloride type and that of the southern parts Sodium Magnesium, Sulphate-Chloride type.
The soils of the Jind district according to physical characteristics, may be divided as below:
Sandy :- This soil locally called retili dharti, is found in all the blocks of the district. Bajra and gram crops are mostly grown in these soils.
Clay :- This soil locally called Dakar is found in parts of Safidon, Kalayat and Rajaund blocks. If properly managed, these soils are highly suitable for the cultivation of paddy, which is fast becoming an important crop of the district.
Kallar or Rehi - This soil is found in Safidon and Kalayat blocks of the district. The general appearance of landscape of this soil is just a white floor with brownish-black background having alkaline salts of 2 to 4 inches depth over the surface.
In general, there is a deficiency of nitrogen and organic matter in the soils, but the phosphorus content ranges from low to medium. It is, therefore, evident that, for obtaining good yields, the soils need heavy manuring with nitrogenous and phosphatic fertilizers soils.
The area of Jind district is irrigated by two canal systems, viz. The Western Yamuna (Jumna) Canal and the Bhakra Canal. These two systems are interlinked by the Narwana and Barwala link canals of the Bhakra Canal system. Earlier due to the seasonal fall in the river Yamuna, the source of Western Yamuna (Jumna) Canal, there was a fall in its discharge at the canal headworks whichresulted in rotational closures for its various branches. With the augmentation of water supply from Bhakra Canal through the Narwana and Barwala Link Canals and Augmentation Canal the supply in the Western Yamuna Canal had been fully replenished and its various branches running in the district have now regular supplies.
Western Yamuna (Jumua) Canal :- Dug originally during the reign of Firuz Shah to conduct water to Hisar and Hansi, it incidentally irrigated the intervening tracts also. It was re-excavated in Akbar's reign to bring supplies from the Yamuna and the Somb into the Chautang and on to Hansi and Hisar. This was a perennial canal. It was further improved during the reign of Shah Jahan with the object of diverting water to Delhi. The river supply was tamed about 22.5 kilometres below the present head works of the canal and the water was led along the drainage line through Panipat and Sonipat to Delhi. The canal takes off from the Yamuna at Tajewala headworks (Ambala district) where a very strong masonry dam is built across the river. The Sirsa branch bifurcates from the main Western Yamuna (Jumna) Canal at lndri (Kamal district); About 49.0 kilometres further down, the Hansi Branch takes off from main branch of the Western Yamuna (Jumna) Canal at Munak. The Sirsa Branch and the Hansi Branch with its Sunder sub-branch and their various distributaries irrigate the district.
Sirsa Branch :- The Sirsa Branch takes off from the Western Yamuna (Jumna) Canal at Indri (Kamal district). This canal irrigates area in the northern part of the Jind district. It was not a perennial canal because with the recession of flow in the Yamuna, all the distributaries of the Western Yamuna (Jumna) Canal could not be simultaneously fed. Hence the different distributaries were rotational. In 1954, the Narwana Branch of the Bhakra Canal was excavated with its outfall into the Sirsa Branch near Budhera, a village ten kilometres south-west of Thanesar and in 1972, another feeder channel, namely, Barwala Link Canal was constructed to pour water from Bhakra Main Line Canal into Sirsa Branch. The Sirsa Branch system was reoriented with its shifting from Western Yamuna (Jumna) Canal to Bhakra Canal. The distributaries which take off from Sirsa Branch and provide irrigation in the Jind district are Habri sub-branch with its Jakhauli and Rajaund distributaries, Sudkian distributary, Dhanauri distributary, Dhamtan distributary, Barwala Branch with its Surbra distributary and Pabra distributary.
Hansi Branch :- The Hansi Branch takes off from the Western Yamuna (Jumna) Canal at Munak (Karnal district) and enters the district near Anta Village in Safidon tahsil. With augmentation of water-supply from Bhakra Canal and Augmentation Canal, the Hansi Branch was made perennial.The distributaries which take off from Hansi Branch and provide irrigation in the Jind district are Jind distributaries No. 1-8, Muana distributary and Butana Branch and Sunder sub-branch. The Butana Branch takes off at R.D. 58,310 of Hansi Branch and Sunder sub-branch from Butana Branch at RD. 1, 74,920. A number of direct outlets and minors irrigate southern part of the Jind district.
Narwana Branch Link Canal :- The Sarusti distributary and Nardak distributary of Narwana Branch Link Canal irrigate some areas of the Jind district in its tail reaches. The Sarusti distributary takes off from Bibipur lake and irrigates the district through Khanauri and Haripur minors. The Nardak distributary takesoff from Narwana Branch Link Canal at R.D. 54,249 and irrigates some areas through Uplana, Salwan, Padana, Rodh, Moana, Kaul and Tail minors.
The Jind district lies in a zone liable to moderate damages due to earthquakes. The history of past earthquakes shows that although no damaging earthquake originated near the place, yet the area came under the influence of moderate to great earthquakes originating in the active seismic belts in the Himalaya, the Sulaiman and Aravali ranges and the Rann of Kutch.
The maximum seismic intensity experienced in this area was during the Kangra earthquake of 4th April, 1905, when the intensity reached VI MM. However, the probable maximum intensity of earthquakes on Modified Mercalli intensity Scale in the area is not likely to exceed VII MM. The intensity VII MM corresponds to horizontal ground acceleration range of 18—140 cms/sec. The wide range of acceleration is due to the fact that acceleration is large on soft filled-up ground and much less on hard rock. Therefore, it is felt necessary that for structures founded on well consolidated foundation a provision of seismic ground acceleration of 7 per cent of gravity may be made.
This district is not very rich in flora and there is no natural forest at present. All existing forests are man-made and they are concentrated along the rail, road and canal strips. There are only two compact forests and these are known as Bir-Bara- Ban and Bithmara Excape respectively.
This district is very poor as far as species of medicinal plants are concerned except for Viter negundo L and Adhatoda zeylanica Medic. Which have medicinal value. The Aquatic flowering plants are poorly represented.
The national bird of India, the common peafowl, pavo cristatus (Linnaeus) is quite common and is seen in orchards, fields and gardens of the district.
Mammals :- The primates, the highest group of animals are represented by Macaca mulata (Zimmermann); the Rhesus Macaque or bandar and Presby tis entellus (Dufresne), the common langur. The tiger, Panthera tigiris (Linnaeus); and the leopard, Panthera pardus (Linnaeus) are no more seen in the district. Only one species of shrew, viz. Sunctus murinus (Linnaeus) and two species of bat; the common yellow bat, Scotophilus heath (Horsfield), and the tiekell's bat, Hespereoptenus tickelli (myth), are found in the district. The five stripped palm squirrel or gilheri, Funumbulus pennati (Wronghton); the Indian porcupine or sahi, Hystrix indica (Kerr); the Indian gerbille, Tatera indica (Hardwicke); the common house rat, Rattus rattus(Linnaeus); the house mouse, Mus musculus (Linnaeus) and the Indian hare, Lepus nigricollis (Cuvier) comprise the rodent fauna, though not very commonly seen. Chinkara, "Gazella gazella (Pallas) and black buck, Antelope Cervicapra (Linn.) have also been seen in the district. The blue bull or nilgai, Boselaphus tragocamelus (Pallas), once very common is still found all over the district.
Game Birds :-The district is inhabited by a number, of game birds some of which are residents while others visit the district only during winter. Gombduck, Sarkidiornls melanotos melanotos (Pennat); cotton teal Nettp.pus coromandelianus coromandelianus (Gmelin); spotbill duck Anus poecilorhyncha (Forester); large whistling teal, Dendrocygna bicolor (Viellot); treeduck, DendrocygnaJavanioo (Horsfield); dabchick, Podiceps ruficollis capensis (Salvadori); eastern greylag goose, Anser anser rubrirostris (Swinhoe); barheaded goose, Anser indicus (Latham); Brahminy duck, Tadorna ferruginea (Pallas); common shelduck, Tadorna tadorna (Linnaeus); Pintail, Anas acuta (Linnaeus); common teal, Anas crecca crecca (Lennaeus); mallara, Anus platyrhynchos (Linnaeu.s); gadwall,' Anus strepera strepera (Linnaeus); wigeon, Anas penelope (Linnaeus);bluewinged teal, Anas querpuedula (Linnaeus); shoveller, Anas clypeata (Linnaeus); common pochard, Aythya ferina (Linnaeus); ferruginous duck, Aythya nyroca (Guldenstaedt); and tufted duck, Aythya fuligula (Linnaeus) are various types of ducks and geese found in the district.
In addition to water birds, other game birds like partridges and quails are common in the district. Indian black partridge, Francolinus francolinus asia! (Benaparte),' the state bird of Haryana and grey partridge, Francolinus pondicerianus interpositus (Hartert) are common. Grey quail, Coturnix coturnix coturnix (Linnaeus) is a seasonal (winter) visitor while blackbreasted or rain quail, coturnix coromandelica (Gmeli.rl.), jungle bush quail, Perdicula asiatica punjabi, whistler and rock bush quail, perdicula argoondah (Sykes) are' resident species.
The other common birds which can be seen are: large Indian parakeet, Psittacula cup atria (Linnaeus); rose ringed parakeet, Psittacula krameri borealis (Neumann); Indian house sparrow, Passer domesticus indicus (Jardine and Selby); blue checked bee eater, Merops superciliosus (Linnaeus); blue jay, Coracias benghalense benghalense (Pnnaeus); coppersmith, Megalai1na haemacephala indica (Latham); Indian golden oriole, Oriolus oriolus kundoo (Sykes); pied creste'a cuckoo, Clamator jacobinus serratus (Sparrman); koel, Eudynamys scolopacea scolopacea (Linnaeus); crowpheasant, Centropus sinenSlis (Stephens); redvented bulbul, Pycnonotus cafer (Linnaeus); white eared bulbul, Pycnonotus leucogenys (Gray); verditer flyca,.tcher, Muscicapa thalassina thalassina (Swainson); Indrian magpie robin, Copsychus sveci.cus svecicus (Linnaeus); Indian purple sunbird, Nectarinia asiatica asiatica (Latham); red munia Es.trilda amandava (Linnaeus); Indian spotted munia, Lonchura punctulat,a punctulata (Linnaeus) and crested bunting, Melophus lathartti (Gray), etc.
Snakes :- The venomous snakes of the district are Bungarus caeruleus (Schneider), common Indian krait, Vipera russelli (Shaw) Russel's viper, Echis carinatus (Schneider), phoorsa and Naja naja (Linn.) cobra. Other snakes which commonly met with are: Typhlons porrectus (Stoliczka) blind snake, Leptotyphlops blandfordi (Boulenger), Python molurus (Linn.) Indian python, Eryx johni johni (Russell),John's sand boa, Lycodon striatus (Shaw) wolf snake, ptyas mucosus (Linn.) rat snake and Psammophis Leithi (Gunther), sand snake.
Lizards :- The common lizards of the district, Hemidactylus brooki (Gray) and Hemidactylus flaviviridis (Ruppell) are found in and outside the buildings. Calotes versicolour (Daudin) is found in the lawn and hedges and attracts attention by its brilliant vermilion colour during the mating season. It is commonly known as blood sucker. Uromastix hardwicki (Gray), sanda may be found in sandy areas. In areas of thick vegetation Mabuva macularia (Dum and Babr.), Ophiomorus tridactylys (Blyth), Acanthodactylus cantoris cantoris (Gunther) and Varanms monitor (Linn.) are found.
Tortoise :- Two types of tortoises, viz. Geeclenys hamilton (Gray) and Chitra indica (Gray) are common in the district. The common frogs in the district are Rana tigrina (Daudin), Indian bull frog, Rana Limnocharis (Weig), Indian cricket frog, Rana breviceps (Schneider), Indian burrowing frog and Bufo me.lanostict,us (Schneider), a common toad.
Fish :- The different watercourses of the district abound in carps, catfish, snake-headed fish, etc. These are Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton) the murakh, Labeo bata (Hamilton) the bata, labeo rohita (Hamilton) the rohu, Catla catla (Hamilton) the theil, Puntius sophore (Hamilton) the chiddu, Wall age attu (Bloch and Schneider) the mullee, Omook pabda (Hamilton) the pabda, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) the sanghi, Mystus vittatus (Bloch) the Kinger and Channa punctatus (Bloch) the dolla, etc.
The district headquarter is situated in Jind town. Other smaller towns are Narwana, Safidon and Uchana. The total area of Jind district is 3606 sq kms and its population is 11,90,000.
The town, headquarter of the district of the same name is situated on the Ferozepur-Delhi section of the Northern Railway, 123 kilometers away from Delhi and 57 Kilometers from Rohtak. It is also connected by road with Delhi, Patiala, Chandigarh and other important towns of Haryana.
Geographical Location :- The district lies in the North of Haryana between 29.03’ and 29.51’ North latitude & 75.53’ and 76.47’ East longitude. On its East and North-East lie the districts of Panipat, Karnal and Kaithal respectively. Its boundary line on the North forms the inter-state Haryana- Punjab border with Patiala and Sangurar districts of Punjab. In the West and South-West it has a common boundary with district Hisar & Fatehabad and in its South and South-East lies the district of Rohtak and Sonipat respectively.