AGRICULTURE AND IRRIGATION
Agriculture is the mainstay of the bulk of population (86%) of the Jind District. Rapid advances have been made in this field after the formation of the Haryana in 1966. With the provision of better irrigational and other facilities, the primitive agricultural practices are fast yielding place to modern mechanised farming and agricultural production is continually increasing..
Agriculture is the chief occupation of the people of the district. After Independence, most of the area fit for cultivation has been brought under the plough. The district made remarkable progress in agriculture after the formation of Haryana in November 1966.
The production of foodgrains has increased form 278.30 thousand tones in 74-75 to 954 thousand tones in year 96-97.
The soils of the Jind district according to physical characteristics, may be divided as below:
Sandy - This soil locally called retili dharti, is found in all the blocks of the district. Bajra and gram crops are mostly grown in these soils.
Clay - This soil locally called Dakar is found in parts of Safidon, Kalayat and Rajaund blocks. If properly managed, these soils are highly suitable for the cultivation of paddy, which is fast becoming an important crop of the district.
Kallar or Rehi- This soil is found in Safidon and Kalayat blocks of the district. The general appearance of landscape of this soil is just a white floor with brownish-black background having alkaline salts of 2 to 4 inches depth over the surface.
In general, there is a deficiency of nitrogen and organic matter in the soils, but the phosphorus content ranges from low to medium. It is, therefore, evident that, for obtaining good yields, the soils need heavy manuring with nitrogenous and phosphatic fertilizers soils.
There are two well-defined crops, Kharif and Rabi. The major Kharif crops (locally called samni are sugarcane, cotton jowar, bajra and rice while major Rabi crops (locally called sadhi are wheat, gram, barley, and oil seeds. Potatoes, onions, chillies, oilseeds, cotton and sugarcane are the main cash crops of the district.
Rice (Paddy) : There has been a considerable increase in the cultivation of paddy in the district. The area of Rice crops has increased to 71,300 hect in 96-97 as compared to 12,000 hect in 1974-75 due to development of irrigation facilities. The production augmented to 2,15,000 tonnes in 1996-97 from 20,000 tonnes of 73-74. High yielding variety of Rice grown is Jaya, PR-106, HKR-130, HKR-126, IR-64, Pausa-33, and Gobind etc. In Basmati group, Basmati-370, Haryana Basmati no. 1, HBc-19 is grown.
Bajra- A bajra is one of the major crops of this district. It constitutes an important item of food during the winter season.
The area under bajra dropped to 36,000 hect 1996-97 due to diversion of area to rice crops consequent upon development of irrigation facilities. Popular variety of Hybird bajra are HHb-60, 67,68,50, Nandi and composite variety are HC-4, WCC-75.
Wheat- It is the principal Rabi food grain crop of the district. It is mostly grown under irrigated conditions.
Area of this crop increased to 1,71,400 hect in 95-96 and production reached to 7,21,000 tonnes. The main variety grown is WH-283, WH-542, HD-2285, PBW-343, UP-2338, HD-2329, and Raj-3765 etc.
Gram- Gram constitutes a major Rabi food grain crop of the district next to wheat. Its importance lies in the fact that it forms a good diet both for human beings and cattle. It is consumed right from the germination to the grain development stage and is used for variety of purposes
The area under this crop reduced to 7200 hect. In 95-96 due to sifting the area to wheat crop due to availability of more irrigation facilities. The varieties of gram are H-208, G-24, C-235, and And HC-! Gora Hisar L-1444 and Gorav etc.
Pulses- Besides gram, moong, mash (urd) and masur (massar) are the three other pulses grown in the district.
Sugarcane- It is an important cash crop of the district and is mostly grown under irrigated conditions.
The area under the crop covered during 96-97 was 12000 hect. With a production of 65000 tonnes. The popular varieties grown are CO-1717, COJ-64, COH-99, CO1148, and COH-35 etc.
Cotton- It is another important cash crop of the district. The crop has two varieties, viz Desi and American. The Desi variety is grown in most of the area under crop.
The area under American cotton and Desi Cotton in the year 19 95-96 was 54.7 thousands hect & 12.7 thousands hectare respectively in comparision to total 19.7 thousands hect in 1974-75
Toria and Sarson- (Rape and mustard) are the main oilseed crops of the district; til (sesame) and linseed crop are grown on small patches of the land. Groundnut is not sown in any part of the district, as the agro-climatic conditions prevailing in the district do not suit the cultivation of this crop. Potatoes, chilies, onions and vegetables are among the minor crops of the district. Chilies are grown in Jind and Safidon blocks of the district.
The area under oilseed crop in 1995-96 has been reduced to 13,000 hect due to diversion of area to wheat crop.
The district has about 10 % of its total cropped area under fodder crops. The important among the fodder crops are Jowar, gawar and berseem; the stalks of Jowar and bajra and the chaff of wheat, gram and minor cereals are used as animal feed.
Fruits Crops And Gardens
The important fruits grown in the district are grapes and mangoes, which are grown in Jind, Narwana and Safidon. There is a wide scope for the extension of the area under fruits with the availability of water facilities and loans from the government for the cultivaiton of grapes.
Improvement in agricultural implements is the pre-requisite of any improvement in agriculture. Farmers are adopting modern implements according to their purchasing power and the suitability of the implements for their use. A description of agricultural implements in common use in the district is given below:
Plough- It may be made of wood or iron, but the one in common use is made of kikar wood, manufactured by the village carpenter. It merely scratches the soil upto 4 or 5 inches. The chief defect in it lies in one fact that it leaves ridges of unploughed land between the V-shaped furrows which it makes. The plough also fails to eradicate weeds properly. However, a sturdy and intelligent farmer makes full and efficient use of the plough with a strong pair of oxen. Still, in the small landholdings and fragmented and non-contiguous plots, the plough is very much suited and it does not disturb the level of the land. It consists of a wooden beam (Ral), a small piece of wood (chou) carrying a pali (an iron plough share) any yoke for bullocks.
Bullock-Cart- It is generally used by the farmers for carrying loads from one place to another, e.g. for carrying the farm produce to the threshing ground, grains to the homestead and to the market, and for other transportation needs, The carts are mostly locally manufactured. There is little difference between the type and price of cart manufactured in different parts of the district. Wheels made exclusively of iron are fast replacing the wooden ones.
Cane Crusher- It is an important implement for crushing the sugarcane. It is mostly used on a co-operative basis. The steel crushers have replaced the old wooden crushers. Most of the cane crushed is for, the manufacture of gur and khandam.
Other Implements- A number of other tools and implements such as spade, kasola (hoe), pors (seed drill), kuhari and dranti also used in the district. Despite the small size of land holding modern implements are being generally adopted by the farmers better use and higher agriculture production.
Good seeds considerably enhance the agricultural production. Much publicity and efforts are made by the Agriculture Department to popularize the use of improved seeds among the farmers. The departments also undertake the multiplication and distribution of improved seeds to the farmers.
Haryana seeds Development Corporation undertakes the multiplication & distribution of improved seeds to the farmers. The high yielding varieties the seeds being popularized are as under: -
Wheat: -Local improved C-306
Exotic High Yielding Varieties: Wh-283, 542,Hd-2285
PBW-343, UP-2338, HD-2329 etc.
Rice: Basmati Group-Basmati-370, Haryana Basmati no. 1 HBC-19
High yielding variety, Jaya, PR-106, HKR-120, 126,Gobind etc.
Gram: C-235, Gorav, L-144, and G-24
Barley: C-164, BG-125, BH-75, And BG-105
Sugarcane: CO-1148, 1158,COJ-767, CO? H-99, COH-35 etc
Bajra: Hybird-HHB-50, 60,67,68
Sugarcane: Co L-29, Co.J-88, Co.L-46, Co.1148 and Co. 945
Jowar : J.S.20, J.S. 263 and J.S. 29/1
In recent year, the use of manure and fertilizers has considerably increased, since along with improved seeds they constitute the lifeblood of the new agricultural strategy. With the change of social and economic attitudes, the farmers use not only chemical fertilizers but also compost of dung and other wastes useful as land manure for improving the fertility of the soil. Green manuring has been found to be quite cheap and the chemical fertilizers applied with it, give better results.
Chemical Fertilizers- Since the soil of the district is deficient in organic matter and nitrogen; chemical fertilizers are essential for increasing crop yields. These are used alone or in combination with organic manures.
The district wholesale co-operative society distributes the fertilizers to the marketing societies and sub-depots.
Urban Compost- Urban wastes are useful as plant food ingredients. Over the past five years, efforts have been made to conserve these wastes for manorial purposes. The municipalities of Jind Narwana, Safidon and Uchana have been preparing compost in the district.
Rural Compost- Rural compost is prepared from the dung and other waste material. The extension workers in the village guide the farmers in the preparation of the compost. The government is popularizing Gobar Gas plants, which serve the twin purpose of providing manure as well as fuel for cooking.
Green Manuring- Green manuring is very useful for raising the fertility of the soil as it directly adds nitrogen to the soil. It also improves the texture of the soil by the addition of organic matter. The addition of organic matter improves both heavy and sandy soils for it has a binding effect on the loose particles of sandy soil and make the tough and heavy soil friable. It creates better conditions for the increase of useful bacteria in the soil.
The various pests and diseases, which damage the foodgrain and commercial crops, fruits and vegetables in the district, are given below: -
(1) Crop, pests and diseases
(a) Sugarcane top-borer
(b) Sugarcane stem-borer
(c) Sugarcane pyrilla
(d) Gurdaspur borer
(e) Rice bug
(f) Cotton jassid
(g) Sarson aphis
(h) Maiza top borer
(i) Rustss of wheat
2. Fruit pests and diseases
(a) Mango hopper
(b) Mango mealy bug
(c) Citrus canker
(d) Lemon cater-pillar
3. Vegetables pests:
(a) Potato and bhindi jassid
(b) Singhara beetle
(c) Brinjal hadda
(d) Red pumpkin beetle
4. Stored grain pests
5. Miscellaneous pests:
(a) Field rats
6. Obnoxious Weeds
(a) Bathua, Pohli, Piazi, Mena, etc.
The rainfall in the district is seasonal, scanty and subject to frequent variations. The development of irrigation remained almost stagnant during the pre-independence period. It has been reported that at the Settlement of 1897, 82% of area of whole of the Jind state was wholly dependent upon rain. The sub-soil water in major part of the district is brackish and is not conducive to the development of irrigation by wells or tube-wells.
Canal water is the major source of irrigation to the dry and parched land of the district. At some places canal water is mixed with the tube-well water to reduce the latter’s salinity. Of the total net irrigated area of the district, irrigation by canal constitutes as much as 85%.
Average rainfall in district is as below: -
In 1995, total 99.6 cm rainfall took place which caused flood in the district thereby reducing the net area sown to 2,41,000 hect as compared to 2,51,000 hect in 1988-89.
The percentage of net area irrigated to net area sown increased to 90.2% from 58% of 1974-75, thus exhibiting the vast development of irrigation facility in district.
Total net area irrigated has increased to 2,21,000 hect. in 1996-97 as compared to 1,63,000 hect. in 1994-95 due to development of irrigation facility. Out of it, 1,37,000 hect is irrigated by canal 74,000 hect. by tubewells and 10,000 hect. by other means in 96-97.
Gross irrigated area of the district has reached to 3,99,000 hect in 96-97 which is 90.3% to the total cropped area.
Wells and Tubewells- In the beginning of the present century the area under well irrigation was insignificant and only a few gardens were irrigated from wells and that too in towns only.
The area irrigated by tubewells has increased from 24,000 in 1974-75 to 74,000 hect in 1996-97 which shows the development of tubewells in district.
Last Revised on 14/02/2001