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          The climate of this district is on the whole dry, hot in summer and cold in winter. The year may be divided into four seasons. The cold season from november to march is followed by hot season which lasts till the onset of the south-west monsoon. The monsoon withdraws by 15 September and is followed by the Post-monsoon or the transition period.


Rainfall - The average rainfall over the district as a whole is 55 cm. It generally increases from south or south-west to east or north-east. Over 70 per cent of the annual rainfall is received during the monsoon months of July to September. July and August are the rainiest months, together accounting for over 50 per cent of the annual rainfall. Per-monsoon rainfall in June constitutes just about 10 per cent of the annual normal. Some precipitation, constituting about 10 per cent of the annual rainfall, is also received during the winter months of December to Februrary in association with western disturbances which pass across the district or its neighborhood from west to east, affecting the weather over the district in this season. The variation in annual rainfall from year to year is large. In 48 years during 1901 to 1948, Jind which is the only station in the district with a long period of rainfall record, had 220 per cent of the annual normal rain in 1933 and only 29 per cent in 1939. Considering the rainfall in individual years during 48 years,  it was less than 80 per cent of the annual  normal in 15 years, including one spell of consecutive 5 years and one of consecutive two years.   The average number of rainy days for the district is only 25 out of which 18 days are confined to the months of  June to September and 4 days to the winter months of December to March. This shows that rainfall occurs mainly as showers.


          The heaviest rainfall recorded in the district in 24 hours was 225.5 mm at Jind on 11th July 1953.


Temperature :- There is no meteorological observatory in the district, On the basis of records  of the observatories in the neighboring districts where similar climatic conditions prevail, it is stated that from the beginning of March, temperature increases rapidly till June which is generally the warmest month. The mean daily maximum temperature during June is around 41C and the mean daily minimum around 27C. The heat in summer in intense. On individual days, the day temperature may occasionally exceed 47 or 48 C. Scorching dust laden winds which blow during the hot season render the weather very tiring. Afternoon thunder showers which occur on some days bring some relief although only temporarily. With the onset of the monsoon by the end of June or beginning of July there is a drop  in the day temperature but the nights are nearly as warm as in June. Due to the increase humidity in the air, the weather is oppressive between the rains. After the withdrawal of the monsoon by about the middle of September there is a decrease in temperature, the fall in the night temperature being more rapid. After October both day and night temperature decreases rapidly. January is usually the coldest month with the mean daily maximum temperature at about 21 C , and the mean daily minimum at about 6 C in the cold season. Particularly in January and February, cold winds in the wake of passing western disturbances affect the district and the minimum temperature occasionally drops down to below the freezing point of water.


Humidity :- During the south-west monsoon-season July to September, the relative humidity is high, being over 75-80 per cent in the morning and 55 to 65 per cent in the afternoon. High humidity of more than 70 per cent also prevails during the winter months of December to February. It is comparatively drier during the rest of the year. April and May constitute the driest part of the year when in the afternoon the relative humidity is 20 per cent or even less.


Cloudiness :- The sky is moderately clouded mainly in July and August. Cloudiness decreases rapidly by october. In the period of November to May, the sky is mostly clear or lightly clouded, except during passage of western disturbances in the cold season when the sky becomes cloudy for a brief spell of a day or two. From June onwards cloudiness increases.


Winds :- Winds are generally light, with some stregthing in force during late summer and early monsoon season. In the south-west monsoon season, winds from the south-west and west are more common, with the easterlies and south-easterlies blowing on some days. In the post-monsoon and winter season, south-easterlies and westerlies are common in the mornings while northerlies and north-westerlies are predominant in the afternoons. During summer, winds are from west or south-west in the morning. In the afternoons, winds blow from directions between west and north.


Special Weather Phenomena :- Thunderstorms, in association with pre-monsoon and monsoon rains occur mostly during June to September. During the winter also, a few thunderstorms occur in association with the western disturbances. A few thunderstorms may be accompanied by hail. Occasional duststorms occur during the hot season. Fog is rare and occurs only in winter.




          The district of Jind stretching in the northwest to southeast direction occupies the north-central part of the Haryana. Physiographically, it constitutes a part of the Punjab-Haryana plain, which is largely flat and featureless and is formed of Pleistocene and sub-recent alluvial deposits of the Indo-Gangetic system. Wind action in the past and mans role in recent times have played a prominent part in shaping the relief of the district which  is located in a transitional zone between the sub-humid districts  Kaithal, Panipat and Karnal in the east and the semi-arid district  Hisar in the west.


          Broadly speaking, the district is a flat, monotonous upland plain. It is evident from the fact that the general elevation of the district ranges between 218 meters and 239 meters above sea level. As the spot-heights are examined more closely, one discovers that there is no general and consistent trend in the slope of the area. However, the northern part of Narwana tahsil presents a saucer like shape having the highest elevation of 239 meters in the extreme  north near Sanghan village.  As one moves south-westward, the ground level gradually declines reaching its lowest of 226 meters near the town of Narwana from where it again starts rising until it reaches 232 meters near Durjanpur village almost on the districts border. The southern half of the district, consisting of Jind  and Safion tahsils on the other hand offers a fradual east-to-west slope. The highest point in this part of the district is reached near village Bahri (232 meters) and the lowest elevation of 218 meters is met near Rajpura village in the west along the district border with Hisar district.



          There are minor undulations in the general physiographic formation of the district. These undulations characterise the area having been subject to wind action in the past and owe their existence to the presence of sand dunes, sand ridges and depressions at places. The sand dunes/ridges are now stable generally having  a local relief of 2 to 6 meters. The largest and the highest sand dune of the district lying north-west of Kakrod village (Narwana tahsil) on Hisar-Jind border is 2 Kilometers long and quarter a kilometer wide and has a local relief of 6 meters. This is the area where large sand ridges occur  the most, particularly to the south-west of Kakrod village. Other areas where sanddunnes occur frequently are (i) the area along Hisar border between Sulhera village in the north and Danauda Khurd village in the south where the local relief ranges between  2 to 5 meters; (ii) the area in the vicinity of village Ashrafgarh, especially south-west and south of the village where the sand dunes rise from 2 to 4 meters above the local relief (iii) the small area lying to south of Julani village (west of Jind town); and (iv) the area in the proximity of Jai Jai Wanti village in  Jind tahsil  which has wide undulations but where the local relief variations do not exceed 4 meters.


          These sand ridges apart, one  also comes across thee depressions at places. The largest of such depressions lies south of Bhambewa village in Safidon tahsil just on the district border with sonipat district. This depression extends over 1.5 kilometers of length and about one kilometers of width and is about 5 metres deep. Another depression occurs north of village Bithmara (Narwana tahsil ) which extends over 1 kilometer in length and about half a kilometer   in width. The third lies to south of Safidon near village Bahaderpur and it extends over one kilometer in length and kilometer in width.


          In brief, the district does not offer much physiographic diversity. It is   flat, featureless, alluvial upland plain dotted only sporadically with sand dunes and depressions, yielding a local relief of not more than 6 metres either way. 


Drainage :    With regard to the drainage pattern, the complete absence of major or minor rivers/streams defies any detailed discussion on drainage. However, it is necessary to mention the entry and termination of Chautang river into the district near the village Mundh and its termination near village Bosini into Karnal district after covering about a distance of ten kilometers in Jind district




          The district, by and large, is underlain by the quaternary alluvium, comprising chiefly clays, sand of various grades, kankar and occasionally gravel and pebbles. It has been observed that the clayey material generally constitutes between 31 and 81 percent of the caustic sediments down to a maximum drilled depth of about 151 meters from the ground level. Granular material comprising chiefly fine to coarse grained sand with occasional pebbles  appear to  be ventricular in shape with their longer axes generally running in the north-south direction.




Saltpeter-     Saltpeter, commonly known as Shora occurs as soil encrustations in several localities. The encrustations are maximum during dry months of summer when  the evaporation of water due to capillary action of the soil is maximum. Saltpeter is economically exploited at Kalayat, Uchana, Narwana, Safidon and Jind.


Gypsum-     Gypsum  has been reported from Julana area . It occurs as disseminations in the clay bands inter bedded with sandy layers. The worn burrows in the clay bands are also seen.



          A buried river channel running in east-north-east to  west-south-west direction has been located in the eastern part of the area. In Safidon-Jind tract successful tubewells have been constructed within a depth of 80 meters. Within this depth a thickness of 25 meters to 35 meters of granular materials comprising coarse sand, gravel and pebble is generally encountered.


          The groundwater occurs in a thick zone of saturation in the alluvium both under confined and unconfined conditions. The shallow zone with free water surface, which is tapped chiefly by open wells and shallow tube-wells, is unconfined. The deeper aquifers which are underlain by extensive confining  clays occur under confined conditions.


          The depth of water table generally ranges from 0.83 to 39.80 meters. Water table is shallowest in  the areas along canals, particularly the Hansi branch and in the area immediately to north of the Ghaggar. Water table is deep generally resting below 30 meters in the central parts of the district. The water table records a general decline ranging from 0.01 to 2.48 meters during the extreme summer months. In the area where water level is closer to the land surface, water logging and soil Stalinizations exist.


          The deeper aquifers are confined. The cumulative pressure head of the confined water has been generally recorded in the existing deep tubewells to vary between 2.5 meters and 11.5 meters from the ground level. The yield of the tubewells tapping such aquifers to the maximum depth of 998 meters ranges from 0.042 to 0.051 cubic meters per second.


          In general the groundwater is alkaline in reaction, with little or no carbonate. The specific conductance of water varies widely ranging from 470 to 14,280 micro ohm/cm . Except for local patches, the groundwater is excessively hard. The groundwater in the northern parts of the district is Magnesium-Calcium, Bicarbonate, Chloride type and that of the southern parts Sodium Magnesium, Sulphate-Chloride type.




The soils of the Jind district according to physical characteristics,  may be divided as below:


Sandy -   This soil locally called retili dharti, is found in  all the blocks of the district. Bajra and gram crops are mostly grown in these soils.


Clay -    This soil locally called Dakar is found in parts of Safidon, Kalayat and Rajaund blocks. If properly managed, these soils are highly suitable for the cultivation of paddy, which is fast becoming an important crop of the district.


Kallar or Rehi - This soil is found in Safidon and Kalayat blocks of the district. The general appearance of landscape of this soil is just a white floor with brownish-black background having alkaline salts of 2 to 4 inches depth over the surface.


                   In general, there is a deficiency of nitrogen and organic matter in the soils, but the phosphorus content ranges from low to medium. It is, therefore, evident that, for obtaining good yields, the soils need heavy manuring with nitrogenous and phosphatic fertilizers soils.



The area of Jind district is irrigated by two canal systems, viz. The Western Yamuna (Jumna) Canal and the Bhakra Canal. These two systems are interlinked by the Narwana and Barwala link canals of the Bhakra Canal system. Earlier due to the seasonal fall in the river Yamuna, the source of Western Yamuna (Jumna) Canal, there was a fall in its discharge at the canal headworks whichresulted in rotational closures for its various branches. With the augmentation of water supply from Bhakra Canal through the Narwana and Barwala Link Canals and Augmentation Canal the supply in the Western Yamuna Canal had been fully replenished and its various branches running in the district have now regular supplies.

Western Yamuna (Jumua) Canal - Dug originally during the reign of Firuz Shah to conduct water to Hisar and Hansi, it incidentally irrigated the intervening tracts also. It was re-excavated in Akbar's reign to bring supplies from the Yamuna and the Somb into the Chautang and on to Hansi and Hisar. This was a perennial canal. It was further improved during the reign of Shah Jahan with the object of diverting water to Delhi. The river supply was tamed about 22.5 kilometres below the present head works of the canal and the water was led along the drainage line through Panipat and Sonipat to Delhi. The canal takes off from the Yamuna at Tajewala headworks (Ambala district) where a very strong masonry dam is built across the river. The Sirsa branch bifurcates from the main Western Yamuna (Jumna) Canal at lndri (Kamal district); About 49.0 kilometres further down, the Hansi Branch takes off from main branch of the Western Yamuna (Jumna) Canal at Munak. The Sirsa Branch and the Hansi Branch with its Sunder sub-branch and their various distributaries irrigate the district.

Sirsa Branch - The Sirsa Branch takes off from the Western Yamuna (Jumna) Canal at Indri (Kamal district). This canal irrigates area in the northern part of the Jind district. It was not a perennial canal because with the recession of flow in the Yamuna, all the distributaries of the Western Yamuna (Jumna) Canal could not be simultaneously fed. Hence the different distributaries were rotational. In 1954, the Narwana Branch of the Bhakra Canal was excavated with its outfall into the Sirsa Branch near Budhera, a village ten kilometres south-west of Thanesar and in 1972, another feeder channel, namely, Barwala Link Canal was constructed to pour water from Bhakra Main Line Canal into Sirsa Branch. The Sirsa Branch system was reoriented with its shifting from Western Yamuna (Jumna) Canal to Bhakra Canal. The distributaries which take off from Sirsa Branch and provide irrigation in the Jind district are Habri sub-branch with its Jakhauli and Rajaund distributaries, Sudkian distributary, Dhanauri distributary, Dhamtan distributary, Barwala Branch with its Surbra distributary and Pabra distributary.


Hansi Branch - The Hansi Branch takes off from the Western Yamuna (Jumna) Canal at Munak (Karnal district) and enters the district near Anta Village in Safidon tahsil. With augmentation of water-supply from Bhakra Canal and Augmentation Canal, the Hansi Branch was made perennial.
The distributaries which take off from Hansi Branch and provide irrigation in the Jind district are Jind distributaries No. 1-8, Muana distributary and Butana Branch and Sunder sub-branch. The Butana Branch takes off at R.D. 58,310 of Hansi Branch and Sunder sub-branch from Butana Branch at RD. 1, 74,920. A number of direct outlets and minors irrigate southern part of the Jind district.

Narwana Branch Link Canal -The Sarusti distributary and Nardak distributary of Narwana Branch Link Canal irrigate some areas of the Jind district in its tail reaches. The Sarusti distributary takes off from Bibipur lake and irrigates the district through Khanauri and Haripur minors. The Nardak distributary takesoff from Narwana Branch Link Canal at R.D. 54,249 and  irrigates some areas through Uplana, Salwan, Padana, Rodh, Moana, Kaul and Tail minors.




          The Jind district lies in a zone liable to moderate damages due to earthquakes. The history of past earthquakes shows that although no damaging earthquake originated near the place, yet the area came under the influence of moderate to great earthquakes originating in the active seismic belts in the Himalaya,  the Sulaiman and Aravali ranges and the Rann of Kutch.


          The maximum seismic intensity experienced in this area was during the Kangra earthquake of 4th April, 1905, when the intensity reached VI MM. However, the probable maximum intensity of earthquakes on  Modified Mercalli intensity Scale in the area is not likely to exceed VII MM. The intensity VII MM corresponds to horizontal ground acceleration range of 18140 cms/sec. The wide range of acceleration is due to the fact that acceleration is large on soft filled-up ground and much less on hard rock. Therefore, it is felt necessary that for structures founded on well consolidated foundation a provision of seismic ground acceleration of 7 per cent of gravity may be made.




          This district is not very rich in flora and there is no natural forest at present. All existing forests are man-made and they are concentrated along the rail, road and  canal strips. There are only two compact forests and these are known as Bir-Bara- Ban and Bithmara Excape respectively.


          This district  is very poor as far as species of medicinal plants are concerned except for Viter negundo L and Adhatoda zeylanica Medic. Which have medicinal  value. The Aquatic flowering plants are poorly represented.         


          The national bird of India, the common peafowl, pavo cristatus (Linnaeus) is quite  common and is seen in orchards, fields and gardens of the district.




Mammals - The primates, the highest group of animals are represented by Macaca mulata (Zimmermann); the Rhesus Macaque or bandar and Presby tis entellus (Dufresne), the common langur. The tiger, Panthera tigiris (Linnaeus); and the leopard, Panthera pardus (Linnaeus) are no more seen in the district. Only one species of shrew, viz. Sunctus murinus (Linnaeus) and two species of bat; the common yellow bat, Scotophilus heath (Horsfield), and the tiekell's bat, Hespereoptenus tickelli (myth), are found in the district. The five stripped palm squirrel or gilheri, Funumbulus pennati (Wronghton); the Indian porcupine or sahi, Hystrix indica (Kerr); the Indian gerbille, Tatera indica (Hardwicke); the common house rat, Rattus rattus(Linnaeus); the house mouse, Mus musculus (Linnaeus) and the Indian hare, Lepus nigricollis (Cuvier) comprise the rodent fauna, though not very commonly seen. Chinkara, "Gazella gazella (Pallas) and black buck, Antelope Cervicapra (Linn.) have also been seen in the district. The blue bull or nilgai, Boselaphus tragocamelus (Pallas), once very common is still found all over the district.


Game Birds - The district is inhabited by a number, of game birds some of which are residents while others visit the district only during winter. Gombduck, Sarkidiornls melanotos melanotos (Pennat); cotton teal Nettp.pus coromandelianus coromandelianus (Gmelin); spotbill duck Anus poecilorhyncha (Forester); large whistling teal, Dendrocygna bicolor (Viellot); treeduck, DendrocygnaJavanioo (Horsfield); dabchick, Podiceps ruficollis capensis (Salvadori); eastern greylag goose, Anser anser rubrirostris (Swinhoe); barheaded goose, Anser indicus (Latham); Brahminy duck, Tadorna ferruginea (Pallas); common shelduck, Tadorna tadorna (Linnaeus); Pintail, Anas acuta (Linnaeus); common teal, Anas crecca crecca (Lennaeus); mallara, Anus platyrhynchos (Linnaeu.s); gadwall,' Anus strepera strepera (Linnaeus); wigeon, Anas penelope (Linnaeus);bluewinged teal, Anas querpuedula (Linnaeus); shoveller, Anas clypeata (Linnaeus); common pochard, Aythya ferina (Linnaeus); ferruginous duck, Aythya nyroca (Guldenstaedt); and tufted duck, Aythya fuligula (Linnaeus) are various types of ducks and geese found in the district.


In addition to water birds, other game birds like partridges and quails are common in the district. Indian black partridge, Francolinus francolinus asia! (Benaparte),' the state bird of Haryana and grey partridge, Francolinus pondicerianus interpositus (Hartert) are common. Grey quail, Coturnix coturnix coturnix (Linnaeus) is a seasonal (winter) visitor while blackbreasted or rain quail, coturnix coromandelica (Gmeli.rl.), jungle bush quail, Perdicula asiatica punjabi, whistler and rock bush quail, perdicula argoondah (Sykes) are' resident species.


The other common birds which can be seen are: large Indian parakeet, Psittacula cup atria (Linnaeus); rose ringed parakeet, Psittacula krameri borealis (Neumann); Indian house sparrow, Passer domesticus indicus (Jardine and Selby); blue checked bee eater, Merops superciliosus (Linnaeus); blue jay, Coracias benghalense benghalense (Pnnaeus); coppersmith, Megalai1na haemacephala indica (Latham); Indian golden oriole, Oriolus oriolus kundoo (Sykes); pied creste'a cuckoo, Clamator jacobinus serratus (Sparrman); koel, Eudynamys scolopacea scolopacea (Linnaeus); crowpheasant, Centropus sinenSlis (Stephens); redvented bulbul, Pycnonotus cafer (Linnaeus); white eared bulbul, Pycnonotus leucogenys (Gray); verditer flyca,.tcher, Muscicapa thalassina thalassina (Swainson); Indrian magpie robin, Copsychus sveci.cus svecicus (Linnaeus); Indian purple sunbird, Nectarinia asiatica asiatica (Latham); red munia Es.trilda amandava (Linnaeus); Indian spotted munia, Lonchura punctulat,a punctulata (Linnaeus) and crested bunting, Melophus lathartti (Gray), etc.


Snakes - The venomous snakes of the district are Bungarus caeruleus (Schneider), common Indian krait, Vipera russelli (Shaw) Russel's viper, Echis carinatus (Schneider), phoorsa and Naja naja (Linn.) cobra. Other snakes which commonly met with are: Typhlons porrectus (Stoliczka) blind snake, Leptotyphlops blandfordi (Boulenger), Python molurus (Linn.) Indian python, Eryx johni johni (Russell),John's sand boa, Lycodon striatus (Shaw) wolf snake, ptyas mucosus (Linn.) rat snake and Psammophis Leithi (Gunther), sand snake.


Lizards - The common lizards of the district, Hemidactylus brooki (Gray) and Hemidactylus flaviviridis (Ruppell) are found in and outside the buildings. Calotes versicolour (Daudin) is found in the lawn and hedges and attracts attention by its brilliant vermilion colour during the mating season. It is commonly known as blood sucker. Uromastix hardwicki (Gray), sanda may be found in sandy areas. In areas of thick vegetation Mabuva macularia (Dum and Babr.), Ophiomorus tridactylys (Blyth), Acanthodactylus cantoris cantoris (Gunther) and Varanms monitor (Linn.) are found.


Tortoise -  Two types of tortoises, viz. Geeclenys hamilton (Gray) and Chitra indica (Gray) are common in the district. The common frogs in the district are Rana tigrina (Daudin), Indian bull frog, Rana Limnocharis (Weig), Indian cricket frog, Rana breviceps (Schneider), Indian burrowing frog and Bufo me.lanostict,us (Schneider), a common toad.


Fish -  The different watercourses of the district abound in carps, catfish, snake-headed fish, etc. These are Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton) the murakh, Labeo bata (Hamilton) the bata, labeo rohita (Hamilton) the rohu, Catla catla (Hamilton) the theil, Puntius sophore (Hamilton) the chiddu, Wall age attu (Bloch and Schneider) the mullee, Omook pabda (Hamilton) the pabda, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) the sanghi, Mystus vittatus (Bloch) the Kinger and Channa punctatus (Bloch) the dolla, etc.



The district headquarter is situated in Jind town. Other smaller towns are Narwana, Safidon and Uchana. The total area of Jind district is 3606 sq kms and its population is 11,90,000.

The town, headquarter of the district of the same name is situated on the Ferozepur-Delhi section of the Northern Railway, 123 kilometers away from Delhi and 57 Kilometers from Rohtak. It is also connected by road with Delhi, Patiala, Chandigarh and other important towns of Haryana.

Geographical Location          The district lies in the North of Haryana between 29.03 and 29.51 North latitude & 75.53 and 76.47 East longitude. On its East and North-East lie the districts of Panipat, Karnal and Kaithal respectively. Its boundary line on the North forms the inter-state Haryana- Punjab border with Patiala and Sangurar districts of Punjab. In the West and South-West it has a common boundary with district Hisar & Fatehabad and in its South and South-East lies the district of Rohtak and Sonipat respectively.

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