The area in
which the Jind district lies formed an integral part of
Kurukshetra in the traditional geographical account. It derived
its name after Jainti, an ancient tirtha mentioned in the
Mahabharata and the Padma Purana, founded in honor of Jainti,
the goddess of victory. According to a local tradition, the
goddess was invoked by the Pandavas for victory in the battle
against the Kauravas.
The antiquity of the district is established on the basis of the
discovery of the Pre-Harappan, the Late-Harappan and the Painted
Grey Ware pottery at various places from the district and the
mention of its tirthas in the Puranas corroborates it.
The district was first occupied by a pre-Harappan Chalcolitic
agricultural community whose pottery has been recovered from a
number of places such as Anta, Morkhi, Beri Khera (tahsil
Safidon); Balu, Hatho, Rani Ran (Bata), Pahlwan, Dhakal (tahsil
Narwana); Birbaraban, Barsana, Pauli, Karsola (tahsil Jind),
etc. It is not yet possible to state from where these people had
moved here or to throw much light on their socio-economic life.
However, on the basis of the evidence of the nearby pre-Harappan
sites like Mitathal (Bhiwani district), Siswal, Banwali and
Rakhigarhi (Hisar district), it may be stated that these people
possibly lived in mud brick and thatched roof houses, used
wheel-made pottery, terracotta and copper-made objects.
Ritauli, Birbaraban, Pauli (Jind tahsil), and Balu (Narwana
tahsil) have yielded pottery of the mature Harappan culture.
existence of the classical Harappan site of Rakhigarhi(Hisar
District) about 15 kms from Jind suggests the existence of such
sites also in Jind district, but in the absence of excavations,
it is not possible to go beyond this surmise. After the
Harappans, the region was inhabited by the late-Harappans (1700
B.C.-1300 B.C.) whose pottery has been recovered from many
places in the district. No Late-Harappans site has so far been
excavated in the district , but on the basis of the evidence
from the adjoining areas like Mitahal ( Bhiwani district ) ,
Bhagwanpur and Mirzpur (near Raja Karna Ka Kila, Kurukshetra
District), etc. it appears that the pepole representing this
culture lived in mud bricks houses , used oval ovens and thick
sturdy red-ware, well levigated and burnt.The discovery of
painted and incised terracotta figurines, possibly indicates
their belief in animal worship.
About 1000 B.C., with the advent of the painted Grey Ware
people, generally associated with the Aryans, a new era dawned
upon this district. The people representing this new culture
settled on the banks of the holy rivers Sarasvati and
Drishadvati, and the region came to be known as the holy land of
Kurukshetra. Thus the district of Jind formed the southern
boundary of Kurukshetra is indicated by a later cultural
development in the form of Yakshas or Dvarapalas at Ram Rai
(Jind tahsil) and Barta (Narwana tahsil). The sacred
Drishadavati ,in fact, passed through some places like Hat,
Assan, Brah, Jind, Dhundwa and Ramrai. The mention of various
tirthas of the district in the Mahabharta and the Puranas points
to the continuance of activities of the Aryans, The region came
under the sway of the Vedic Bharatas, Purus and the Kurus and
was included in the kingdom of the Pandavas under whom it
touched the hight of glory. King Parikshit, grandson of the
Pandavas had his second capital at Asandivat (Asandh in Karnal
district), very close to the Jind district. Parikshit, however,
lost his life in the struggle against the Nagas of Taxila. This
defeat, later avenged by his son Janamejaya, is symbolised in
the epic tradition of the snake sacrifice which possibly took
place at Sarpi Darvi of Safidon.
may safely be inferred that this area was also included in the
kingdom of the Kurus, which was one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas
in the 6th century B.C. mentioned in the Buddhist
literature. It was a part of the Nanda Empire, and its people
are included by Panini among the warrior communities (Ayudha-
Jivins) of Punjab.
Later on, these people may have possibly assisted Chandragupta
in his war of liberation against the foreign Greeks.
Archaeological remains of pre-Mauryan and Mauryan times have
been recovered from a number of places in the district.
Furthermore, the discovery of an Ashokan Edict at Topra, pillars
at Hisar and Fatehabad and stupas at Chaneti and Thanesar in the
adjoining districts suggests inclusion of the Jind area in the
After the fall of the Mauryas, the region witnessed the rise of
several important republican people. Among these the most
important were of course the Yaudheyas who spread over an
extensive area from Ludhiana to Bharatpur in Rajasthan. The
Yaudheyas later submitted to the superior power of the Kushanas
whose coins have been found throughout Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana,
Mathura and other regions. An Athsho (an Iranian fire deity)
type coin of Kanishka was recovered from village Anta (Safidon
tahsil). The Sonipat hoard of Kushana coins, their coin moulds
from Narangabad (Bhiwani district) and crude imitation of coin
types of Vasudeva I from other places including those form this
district, and also the discovery of typical pottery of Kushana
times from the district suggest that the Kushanas ruled here.
With the decline of the Kushanas power after Havishaka (138
A.D.) the Yaudheyas again asserted their independence some time
during the third century A.D. Their coins belonging to this
period have been found throughout Haryana, e.g., Sonipat, Rohtak,
Raia, Anawali, Karontha, Narangabad, Hansi, Sirsa, Hisar, Assan,
Jaijaiwanti and Anta. In the fourth century A.D., the region
alongwith the Yaudheyas submitted to Samudra-Gupta and after the
fall of the imperial Guptas, to the Hunas. In the seventh
century A.D. it formed part of the region called Srikantha and
was under the Pushpabhutis of Thanesar. Under the Pushpahautis,
the region attained the pinnacle of glory but after the death of
Harsha what became of the region is not precisely known. Towards
the end of seventh century A.D., the army of Yasovarman, the
king of Kanauj passed through this region. In the ninth and
tenth centuries, the district formed part of the Partihara
empire whose inscriptions have been found at Sirsa, Pehowa and
Delhi. Later on, the Tomaras, the feudatories of the Pratiharas
came to power here.
indicated in the Palam Boali and Delhi Museum inscriptions, the
Tomaras ruled the Haryana country from their capital Dhillika,
modern Delhi till the middle of Twelth century when they were
over thrown by the Chahamana Vigraharaja IV (Visaladeva). Hansi,
Sirsa, Pinjore, and Bhatinda were the chief centres of political
activity during this period. The Chahamana supremacy in this
region, however, could not last long. The defeat of the forces
of Prithyiraja by Shihab-ud-din (Muizz-ud-din) Gauri in the
decisive battle of Tarai (1192 A.D.) and the fight of Prithviraj
towards Sirsa, his capture and subsequent death , gave a
definite turn to the political fortune of the region. With
almost the whole of the north west of India, It passed on to the
Muslim rule for centuries to come.
demise of Shihab-ud-din Gauri, Qutb-ud-din Aibak, his favorite
general established Turkish rule in northern India in 1206. The
Haryana territory, including the present Jind district, formed a
part of the Sultanate of Aibak who placed the district under the
Iqta of Hansi. Officers mostly belonging to the army, were put
incharge of the administration to preserve law and order and
collect taxes, in the towns of Jind, Dhatrat and Safidon. The
villages were left to themselves; none interfered in their
affairs if they paid their revenue in time.
This position continued throughout the reign of Aibak and his
successors, up to A.D. 1283. But the Khaljis under Ala-ud-din,
the greatest of the kings of this dynasty made definite changes.
He took the region in his tight grip by placing it under direct
control of the central government. The change was for the worse.
Ala-ud-din squeezed the people of their incomes in such a
ruthless manner that they literally became paupers.
Unfortunately the two Tughluqs Ghiyas-ud-din (A.D.1320-1325) and
Muhammad Tughluq (A.D. 1325-1351) who came after him were in no
way better than him.
However the third Tughluq Firoz (A.D. 1351-1388) behaved
differently; he undid what his predecessors had done. He reduced
the land revenue, exempted the peasants of several taxes and
provided them with many facilities. In 1355-56 he brought water
to the thirsty soil of the district. He took out a canal from
the Yamuna which entered the district at Anta, and thence
flowing through the present Jind tahsil from east to west in the
line of the old Chutang nadi past the town of Safidon and Jind,
reached up to Hisar.
Firoz also made some administrative changes here. He created a
separate Iqta of Safidon; and placed the entire area of the
present district under its Mukta, Yalkhan, a trusted noble. He
also changed the name of Safidon to Tughluqpur.
After Firoz’s death (A.D. 1388), the district felt the full
force of those deadly discords which rent the Delhi Sultanate.
Along with the other territories in Haryana, Jind slipped out of
the hands of the Tughluqs. The people became quite assertive and
accepted only the local authority.
There is one important event of this time which needs to be
mentioned. Timur launched a fierce attack on northern India in
A.D. 1398. He entered Haryana from Punjab side and overran the
districts of Sirsa and Hisar. Fortunately, the district of Jind
did not suffer much at his hands; during his march from Tohana
to Kaithal and then from Kaithal to Panipat he touched only the
outskirts of the district except for a short distance of a few
kilometers from Moana (a small village near the Karnal-Jind
border) to Safidon and a little beyond. The inhabitants of
these places ran away before his advent and the invader could
not lay his hands on any thing except for burning the fort of
After Timur’s return from India, the same old situation again
arose. There was no king and no government for the people of
Jind for quite some time. The Sayyids could not effect any
improvement in the situation, but their successors, the Lodis
brought the distrcit under their control in A.D. 1451 and
retained it until 1526 when Babur, the founder of the Mughal
empire in India snatched it from the weak hands of the last of
their rulers, Ibrahim Lodi.
Babur gave the entire Hisar division including the Jind district
to Humayun as a reward for his meritorious services during the
last campaign. Humayun retained it until 1530 when Babur died
and he himself became the king of Hindustan. Subsequently, the
Faujdar of Hisar controlled the district until 1540, when
Humayun was driven out of his empire by Sher Shah Suri.
Sher Shah was an administrative genius. He divided his whole
kingdom into sixty six sarkars. Jind came, as in the earlier
time, under the Sarkar of Hisar. Its administration was carried
out by two officials, namely, Shiqdar-i-Shiqdaran and
Munsif-Munsifan. Unfortunately there is no direct evidence to
give the exact number of parganas into which the district was
then divided, but it is surmised that they were three. The
parganas were controlled by Shiqdars, Munsifs and junior
officials, like Qanungos, Khazanchis, etc. The smallest unit of
administration was the village which was administered by the
Muqaddams, and Panchayats; Patwaris and Chaukidars helped in
discharging their work. Sher Shah ruled for only five years
(1540-45). There was peace, prosperity and tranquility every
where during his short rule, but not after him. The Mughal
Emperor Humayun took advantage of the new situation and wrested
his lost kingdom from them. Jind district again came under the
Mughal sway (1555).
Humayun’s death within a year threw confusion all around. But
his son, Akbar, not yet 14, effected improvement in the
situation after his victory over Hemu in the second battle of
The Ain-i-Akbari does not give the number of
villages in the different mahals or in the aggregate. It,
however, makes reference to a brick fort at Dhatrat. Jind had,
interestingly, no fort at that time. The administrative
machinery that controlled the villages, mahals and sarkars was
of the same type as was found in this region in the time of Sher
The above administrative set-up remained intact during the reign
of Akbar’s successors-Jahangir (1605-1627), Shah Jahan
(1627-1658), and Aurangzeb (1658-1707).
The situation however, underwent drastic changes after the death
of Aurangzeb in 1707 which ushered in an era of chaos and
confusion. The imperial authority ceased to carry any awe with
it and people stopped caring for it. In Jind, the sturdy Jats,
Rajputs, Ranghars and Ahirs became disorderly and would not pay
land revenue to their old masters or accept their authority.
Their villages surrounded by mud walls were like fortresses
which could only be reduced by artillery and a large force which
the local haqims could not always muster.
Gajpat Singh, a great grandson of Phul, the founder of the
Phulkian Misl, one of the 12 confederacies of the Sikhs in the
18th century took advantage of the above situation.
He took part in the attack of the Sikhs on the province of
Sirhind in 1763 in which Zain Khan, The Afghan governor of the
province was killed. Gajpat Singh occupied a large tract of the
country including Jind and Safidon as his share of the spoil. He
made Jind his headquarters and built a large brick fort there.
1772, Emperor Shah Alam conferred upon Gajpat Singh the title of
Raja. From this time onward, the Sikh chief ruled as an
independent prince and coined money in his own name The Delhi
authority failed several times to bring him under its control.
In 1774 a serious quarrel arose between Gajpat Singh and Himir
Singh , the then ruler of Nabha . Gajpat singh used force and
took possession of Amloh Bhadson and Sangrur ,by the
intervention of the ruler of Patiala and other friends . The
first two places were restored to Nabha but Sangrur then a
village was retained.
Raja Gajpat Singh’s Daughter Bibi Kaur married Sardar Mahan
Singh Sukrachakla and became the mother of famous Maharaja
Ranjit Singh. This must have enhanced Gajpat Singh’s prestige.
Moreover his strategic position in the North-Western corner of
the Rohtak region made it easy for him to have his hold over
some parts of Haryana –Gohana, Hisar etc. which he and his
successors held until the beginning of the last century.
Raja Gajpat Singh died in 1786 and was succeeded by his son Bhag
Singh at a very tough time. But he overcame this serious menace
with the help of his brother chief of the Cis-Satluj tract and
Bhag Singh was a shrewd man. He was the first of all the
Cis-Satluj princes to seek an alliance with the British . In
1803 he assisted Lord Lake in his way against the Marathas and
received confirmation of the Gohana estste. He also prevented
his nephew Maharaja Ranjit Singh from espousing the cause of
Jaswant Rao Holkar,.The British recognised in him a great friend
and ally and showed him many marks of favour and regard.
Raja Bhag Singh suffered a severe paralytic attack in March
1813. Unfit to run the administration of his state, the ailing
chief wished to appoint Prince Pratap Singh the ablest and
wisest of all his sons as his regent to do his work . But the
British government to whom the anti-British bearing of the
prince was known stood in his way and got Rani Sobrahi appointed
in place of the price in 1814. This was unbearable for Paratap
Singh and he raised the standard of revolt on June 23, 1814. He
being a popular figure the state forces also revolted and joined
him forth with. With their help the prince lost no time in
occupying the Jind fort and established his government after
putting the Rani the puppet of the British government to the
This alarmed the British authorities very much and the British
resident at Delhi sent his force against Pratap Singh , the
prince thinking that he would not be able to give a fight to
this force from the Jind fort, retired to a relatively stronger
position at Balanwati , a fort in the wild country about
Bhatinda. The British attacked him with full force and after a
fierce fighting for some time Pratap Singh had to leave this
fort and take his position in the country on the other bank of
the Satluj after crossing it at Makhowal . Here he was joined by
Phaula Singh Akali.
remained with Phaula Singh at Nanpur Mokhowal for two months and
persuaded the latter to assist him actively at Balanwali. When
the British came to know that Phula Singh had crossed the Satluj,
they directed Nabha and Malerkotla rulers to attack him.
Balanwali was then invaded by Patiala troops and was almost
prepared to surrender when its defenders heard the approach of
Phula Singh. They at once broke the negotiations while Pratap
Singh went in advance and with a few men threw himself into the
fort. The Patiala troops marched to intercept Phula Singh who
was unable to relieve the fort and retired towards the Satluj.
The British directed Nabha and Kaithal chiefs to help Patiala
troops. Balanwali Surrendered and Pratap Singh was taken a
prisoner and was placed under merely a nominal restraint. Pratap
Singh later fled to Lohore. Maharaja Ranjit Singh refused to
give a shelter to Pratap Singh and gave him up to the British
who placed him in confinement at Delhi where he died in 1816.
The administration of Jind was entrusted to prince Fateh Singh.
Though Raja Bhag Singh did not like the arrangement, yet he did
not oppose it. In fact, he had neither the will nor the means to
do it. Bhag Singh died in 1819, and Fateh Singh succeeded him.
He ruled for a short time only and died three years later
(1822). Now Sangat Singh, (11 years old) succeeded him. He hated
the authority of the British which the latter noted with grave
concern. But, before they could think of dealing with him he
died a sudden death on November 2, 1834. Annoyed as the British
Government was with the deceased Raja, they forfeited a number
of his estates in Ludhiana, Mudki, etc. (about 150 villages) and
in the trans-Satluj region (Halwara, Talwandi, etc.). The latter
estates were given to Ranjit singh.
Since the deceased Raja left no male heir behind him, Sarup
Singh, his cousin succeeded him. He was very friendly and loyal
to British, but not to his people, especially of Balanwali. They
did not relish the change and organised themselves to oppose
him. Gulab Singh Gill, formerly a Risaldar in Jind army and Dal
Singh, brother-in-law of Prince Pratap Singh, were their
leaders. The rebels got a good deal of inspiration from Mai Sul
Rai, the widow of Prince Pratap Singh. A British force was
dispatched against the rebels in early 1835. By March the ranks
of the rebels had swelled a good deal. The people of the
neighboring villages like Bhai Chakian, etc. and the Akalis of
Gurusar, a place of pilgrimage had joined hands with them. The
villagers fought well, but being inferior to their enemy in
military knowledge, strategy and tactics, arms and ammunitions,
they lost the day. Their casualties in the action were quite
heavy, Gulab Singh being one of them. Dal Singh and Mai Rai were
apprehended and put behind the bars, along with their
supporters. And thus ended a popular revolt after much bloodshed
and cruelty on the part of the British government.
Raja Sarup Singh gave great help to the British government for
his selfish motives. In 1857, immediately on learning of the
outbreak, he conducted his troops to Karnal by forced marches
and undertook the defence of the city and cantonment. He then
sent a detachment of his troops to north of Delhi, thus enabling
the Meerut force to cross the Yamuna and join Sir H. Barnard’s
column. The Jind forces marched in advance of the British army
recovering Samalkha and Rai, securing the road and collecting
supplies for the army. They were complimented on the field by
the Commander-in-Chief, who sent one of the captured guns to the
Raja as a present. In the assault of Delhi also the Jind troops
took a prominent part. Resultingly Dadri and Kularan were made
over to the Raja, privileges of full sovereignty were granted to
him and his successors in perpetuity and honorary titles were
conferred on him
Raja Sarup Singh died in 1864. He was succeeded by his son
Raghbir Singh. Immediately after his installation, Raghbir Singh
was faced with a serious revolt of the peasantry in the newly
acquired territory of Dadri. In May 1874, the poor exploited
peasants of about 50 villages in this tract led by their local
Chaudharis and Hakim and Kasim Ali rose en- masse captured
police station arrested Thanedar and proclaimed the end of the
Raja’s rule. This was a big challenge to Raja who immediately
marched in person at the head of a big army. His first attack
was on Charkhi (14 May), where 1500-2000 persons of the
rebellious villages had collected and entrenched themselves.
They resisted the Raja to the last but ultimately they were
defeated and their village was burnt. Next, Mankawas was
attacked, captured and destroyed. However the two defeats did
not dishearten the brave villagers who gave a tough battle to
the Raja at Jhauju (16 May). But here also they shared the same
fate and defeat quelled the rebellion once for all. The Raja
punished the leaders but permitted the Zamindar to return and
rebuild their ruined villages.
The Raja also took side of the British Government on the
occasion of the Kuka outbreak in 1872. Again when the second
Afghan war broke out six years later he gave help to the
British with man, money, and material. The British government
conferred the title of Raja-i-Rajgan on Raghbir Singh.
Raghbir Singh died in 1887. His only son Balbir singh had died
during his own lifetime and therefore his grandson, Ranbir
Singh, Then only 8 years of age, succeeded him. During the
period of his minority, a council of regency administered the
state, during this regime the state troops took part in the
Tirah campaign of 1897. He was interested in full ruling powers
in November 1899.
During the first world war, Jind maintained its loyal tradition
by placing all the resources of his state at the disposal of the
government .The Jind Imperial Service Regiment was on active
service for about three and half years in East Africa; States
war gift amounted to over 24 lacs ; while the total loan raised
in the state amounted to eleven and half lacs.The British
Government thanked the Maharaja very heartily after the war .
Raja as indicated above was very loyal to the British but
indifferent toward the prosperity of his subjects. Instead of
looking after their welfare, he effected their economic
exploitation. The poor and ignorant masses groaned under the
exploitation by the Raja.
the first quarter of the present century when winds of political
awakening and enlightenment reached even the remotest corners of
the country , the pepole of Jind were also affected . They
became conscious of their pitiable conditions and began to
ponder over has to how to get over these difficulties . The
formation of all India state pepole’s conference in 1927 at the
Punjab state Riyasti Paraja Mandal the following years showed
them the way . They too , established the Jind state Parja
Mandal however in the condition which were then in vogue , No
open memberhip drive of the Mandal was possible . Members were
recruited secretly . Parja Mandal would appear to have been
established at Narwana . and other places in sport of National
movement The Sikh peasants joined the Paraja Mandal Movement and
they launched the stir against the Raja . The agitators as they
were called then led their main attack on the enhanced revenue
rates., corruption and high- handedness of the Chief Minister
of the State Raja Ranbir Singh took a stiff attitude and the
stir does not seem to have achieved any big success but this did
not dishearten the people. In the late Thirties the Parja Mandal
Movement sepread to almost all parts of the state, the branches
of Parja Mandal were opened at Sangrur, Dadri, Jind and at
several big villages in the region.
The Praja Mandalist waged a long stubborn struggle for the
reduction of taxes, abolition of begar and popular
representation in the Government. Their efforts bore fruits,
through belated and the Raja accepted their demand for an
elected assembly and formed a representative government on 18th
January, 1947 with five ministers; two Praja Mandalists, two
Akalies, and one Muslim. The Raja had power to veto any decision
of his cabinet.
This arrangement did not satisfy the people especially in the
Dadri region, where they rose in revolt in February, 1947. They
courted arrests in large number and formed a parallel government
of their own. This compelled the Jind authorities to invite the
president of the All India State Peoples Conference for
negotiations. On his advice the people withdrew the movement.
The state authorities promised to look into their grievances and
released all the Praja Mandalists who had been arrested.
When India got independence (August, 1947), a non-official poll
was taken by the Jind State Praja Mandal in Jind and Dadri to
ascertain the views of the people about their future whether
they wanted to merge with Punjab or stood for a separate state.
The majority of people voted for the former proposal . But the
government merged the state with the newly- created state of
Patiala and East Punjab State Union(PEPSU) on July 15, 1948
With the formation of the Patiala and East
Punjab States Union (PEPSU) in 1948, the state was grouped into
eight districts namely, Patiala, Barnala, Bhatinda, Kapurthala,
Fatehgarh Sahib, Sangrur, Mahendragarh and Kohistan(Kandaghat).
In 1953, the number of districts was reduced to five, by merging
Barnala with Sangrur and Kandaghat and Fatehgarh Sahib with
Patiala. Thus the Sangrur district comprised five tahsils,
namely, Barnala, Malerkotla, Sangrur, Narwana and Jind.
During the reorganization of the Punjab in 1966, the Sangrur
district was bifurcated and Jind and Narwana tahsils were
allocated to Haryana and were constituted into Jind district.
The Jind tahsil was bifurcated into two tahsils of Jind and
Safidon in 1967. In January 1973, 54 villages of Kaithal tahsil
were transferred to Jind district, 43 going to Jind tahsil, 5 to
Safidon tahsil and 6 to Narwana tahsil. One village namely,
Barsola was transferred to Jind tahsil from Hansi tahsil of
Hisar district in 1974.